What is cattle mycoplasmosis? How to treat listeriosis? If you are engaged in animal husbandry, you simply must know about the most common infectious diseases of livestock. This will help to properly organize the farm, competently carry out prevention, and if necessary, recognize the disease in time and save the animals. Some pathologies are similar, while others have specific signs. Sometimes it is possible to help a sick cow independently, and in other cases it is necessary to urgently call a veterinarian. In this article we will tell all about the infections affecting livestock.
Tayleriosis: beware of ticks
In case of cattle taleriosis, it is very important to begin the treatment of animals as soon as possible. The causative agent of the disease is transmitted by ticks in April-September.
In Russia, theileriosis is often identified:
- in the Caucasus;
- in the North Caucasus;
- in the Astrakhan region.
The sick animal develop acute and subacute forms of the disease. The main symptoms are a sharp increase and hardening of the lymph nodes, fever, an abnormal heart rhythm, digestion, hemorrhage on the mucous membranes. In the first days of the disease, the animal stops eating, the gum stops. Body temperature rises to 41 degrees. In acute, if you do not immediately begin treatment, the beast dies for 6-8 days. With subacute - animals suffer for up to 25 days or more, and die from exhaustion.
Individuals of any age and sex are infected, but calves suffer the disease especially hard.
Treat theileriosis with azidine, quinocide, biguallem, terramycin and other drugs.
Enterotoxemia is a silent killer
A very insidious disease is anaerobic enterotoxemia in cattle. The infection is caused by bacteria C. perfringens types A, B, C, D. Infection occurs through the mouth and is directly related to the sanitary and hygienic conditions of livestock. It does not matter whether there was contact with a sick animal. The causative agent exists by itself.
The disease is severe, often leading to the death of animals. Newborn calves are especially vulnerable. Interestingly, the cause of the destruction of the body is not the bacterium itself, but the toxins it releases.
Infected calves, the temperature rises sharply, colic begins, the pulse and breathing increase, and bleeding from the natural openings of the body is possible. The calf may die within 3-4 hours after the onset of symptoms. Adult cows and bulls infected with enterotoxemia often die suddenly, for no apparent reason.
The disease has three forms, different in symptoms. At the first, either sudden death occurs, or convulsions, incoordination, prostration appear. In the second - paralysis of the hind legs and pelvis. At the third - convulsions and coma.
Animals are isolated, treated with antitoxic serum, antibiotics, and at the same time they disinfect premises for livestock.
Scourge of livestock farms - listeriosis
Listeriosis is a contagious infectious disease that spreads through contact with infected animals and birds (including wild ones), fleas, ticks, as well as when animals eat contaminated feed. Such a variety of transmission routes is due to the high resistance of Listeria. For example, in hay she can live up to 20 months.
The course of listeriosis depends on the immunity of the infectedanimal and virulence (the ability to reproduce in the body) bacteria. If the immunity is strong enough and Listeria is weak, the animal becomes a carrier. Otherwise, the disease develops.
Symptoms for listeriosis are different in young and adult animals. Calves begin to have sepsis, in adults - meningitis, encephalitis. The temperature rises to 40-41 degrees, appetite disappears, tearing begins, rhinitis. A pregnant cow has an abortion during the illness.
Treatment for listeriosis is non-specific, depending on the stage of the disease. At first, tetracycline antibiotics are introduced - terramycin, biomitsin and others - intramuscularly. Also use bitsillin, clamoxyl LA, solamox.
To prevent listeriosis, prevention is extremely important: quality control of the feed, timely control of rodents and blood-sucking insects, careful inspection of new animals entering the herd.
Respiratory infections are not at all harmless.
Microorganisms - responsible for respiratory diseases, a lot. Consequently, a lot of diseases.
Syncytial infection (SSR) is usually activated in winter and autumn. It can proceed almost imperceptibly, or with obvious symptoms that appear respiratory: a runny nose, cough with subsequent pneumonia or emphysema, the body temperature of the animal is increased. However, most often it does not reach the complications, the cow recovers within a few days. Nevertheless, there are cases of death of livestock, especially young stock, from acute pneumonia caused by syncytial infection. Treatment of RSB is usually reduced to relief of symptoms. Antibiotics are used to prevent complications.
Adenoviral infection of cattle suffer mainly from calves. After the animal becomes infected, it takes 4 to 7 days before the onset of symptoms of the disease: high fever, cough, discharge from the nose and eyes, and diarrhea mixed with blood. That is, respiratory and intestinal syndromes predominate.
Sick animals are contagious. The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets and through excretions of infected animals.
For the treatment of these viral diseases, hyperimmune serum, antibacterial, and immunostimulating preparations are used.
Parainfluin-3 and infectious rhinotracheitis
These infectious diseases are also referred to as respiratory.
Parainfluenza-3 affects the respiratory tract of animals, causes dry cough, conjunctivitis, edema of the upper respiratory tract. Calves are most susceptible to illness, although adult cows are sick, only they have a disease that passes without symptoms. Often, parainfluenza-3 occurs along with other infections. Infection occurs through airborne droplets.
The defeat of the respiratory organs is manifested in animals with acute rhinitis, cough, to which high fever and diarrhea are connected. Complications are dangerous - bronchitis, pneumonia. In severe illness, the calf may die.
Para-flu-3 is treated with antibiotics, sulfonamides, hyper-immune sera.
Infectious rhinotracheitis causes herpes virus. It is transmitted through the air, through feed, as well as mating of a cow and a bull.
There are different forms of the disease: respiratory, genital, atypical. Different and symptoms. When respiratory fever occurs, fever, runny nose, shortness of breath, cough. With genital - swelling of the vulva and vagina, ulcers on the mucous membrane of the genital organs of both cows and bulls. In an atypical form, the symptoms are similar to respiratory, but in sick animals, in addition, subcutaneous emphysema occurs.
Treatment of the disease is the same as with parainfluenza-3.
Vibriosis and chlamydia cattle
Vibrioses (also known as campylobacteriosis in cattle), cows can become infected from other animals. Transmission of the pathogen occurs through sexual contact, or in contact with the infected litter, on which the discharge of the sick animal remained. Particularly high incidence among young.
Vibriosis of cattle begins with swelling of the vagina and bloody mucous secretions, which then become purulent. Under the mucosa punctate seals are clearly visible. Pregnant cows have abortions. Bulls also get sick, but with little or no symptoms, but they carry the infection.
The disease, taking a chronic form, lasts for months, and sometimes years, periodically exacerbated. Abortions in animals do not always happen, but newborn calves die. Treat pathology with penicillin, streptomycin.
Chlamydia spreading cattle can be not only sick animals, but also recovered, and they are infectious within a year after the symptoms disappear.
The disease can manifest itself in the respiratory, genital, intestinal, conjunctival and encephalic forms. At the last 100% of sick animals die. Symptoms are different, depending on the form: high temperature with a decrease in 2-3 days, cough, runny nose, diarrhea, abortion, increased heart rate and breathing, loss of orientation, seizures. Chlamydia is treated with tetracycline antibiotics.
Slimming and jaundice? This is echinococcus
Echinococcosis disease is a parasitic infection. It is caused by a tapeworm. Usually his eggs carry dogs. Also, eggs can be on the grass, in the straw, in the water.
Cows and other cattle are sick in the larval stage of echinococcosis. Animals gradually lose weight, give less milk. It comes to exhaustion. If a lot of larval bubbles are in the lungs, shortness of breath, coughing, wheezing occurs. If jaundice develops in the liver, digestion is disturbed. Often, animals with echinococcosis, die.
The danger for cattle in echinococcosis is not that worms develop from the larvae — it does not reach this stage — but that the larval bubbles form clusters, affecting vital organs.
There is no treatment for echinococcosis of cattle, since it is ineffective at the larval stage. True, there are quite successful experiments on the introduction of immunostimulants to sick animals, which slow down the development of blisters. For this reason, prevention is important: the right conditions for slaughter and the disposal of corpses, timely deworming of dogs in contact with the herd, regular allergy tests of cattle (animals affected by echinococcus give a positive result).
Danger posed by water
Another disease caused by a parasite is paramptomatosis. Animals become infected while drinking water or eating grass on pastures. There is a threat where, near the grazing places, there are reservoirs with standing or slowly flowing water.
Parasites in large numbers are concentrated in the abomasum, the rumen, the book, the jejunum and the duodenum.
Paramptomatosis is acute and chronic. Acute usually - in young. His symptoms: loss of appetite, depression, unstable stool (now constipation, then diarrhea), swelling, feces with blood, exhaustion. In almost 50% of cases, calves die. The chronic form of paramptomatosis is recorded in older animals. Symptoms are the same, only less pronounced. In addition, young cows that have become infected develop anemia and milk production decreases.
For the treatment of paramptomatosis apply bitionol, retinol, niclosamide, rafoxacid.
For the prevention of calves up to a year, they organize stall-walking maintenance, grazing on artificial or dry pastures.
Parasitic onchocerciasis of cattle is also common. It is caused by nematode roundworms. The disease is dangerous because there is no effective treatment for cattle.
Emphysematous carbuncle cattle
Emphysematous carbuncle cattle (EMKAR) is distributed throughout the world and does not depend on climate. It refers to toxic and infectious diseases. Milk and meat of infected cows can not be eaten.
In Russia, EMCAR is recorded infrequently, but there is a threat of its spread. The greatest risk exists for beef breeds of cattle, as the pathogen develops in the muscles.
The disease breaks out suddenly. On the body of the animal appear swollen seals, hot and painful, which then "cool down". If you press on the "cooled" carbuncle, you hear a crunch. The skin around the seal is bluish and purple. From the incised carbuncles a dark liquid flows out, frothy, smelling of rancid oil. The lameness develops. As a rule, the sick animal dies after a few days. Cases of recovery are very rare.
As is already clear, the treatment of EMCAR is not always effective because of the rapid course of the disease. Apply antibiotics; Lysol, phenol, hydrogen peroxide - for the treatment of carbuncles.
"Ant" disease - dicroceliosis
Dicroceliosis pathogens, small trematodes (tapeworms), enter the body of cows along with the grass on which the ants carry. Penetrating into the gastrointestinal tract of the animal, the parasite settles in the bile ducts of the liver.
At first, there are no symptoms. They occur when the worms are fertile enough. The main signs of dicroceliosis are digestive disorders, mucous jaundice, dull, brittle hair that is easily pulled out. The animal becomes depressed, loses its appetite.
Most often the disease occurs in mountainous and foothill areas. For the treatment of dicroceliosis prescribe politremam, thiabendazole, fazinex, fascoderm, cambendazole.
Prevention of dicroceliosis is very important. It requires not only deworming, but also proper disposal of manure. In addition, stray animals should not be allowed on farms, as they can tolerate dicroceliosis pathogen.
Nonlethal but insidious keratoconjunctivitis
Intracellular parasites of rickettsia, as well as chlamydia, mycoplasma and moraccella cause infectious keratoconjunctivitis in cattle. The disease lasts 8-10 days, after which the cows recover, but some go blind in one or both eyes. Individuals become unproductive, which is why they are usually sent for slaughter.
The pathogen quickly spreads in the herd, standing out with the tears of sick animals or with mucus from the nose. In addition, flies carry it.
Symptoms appear 10-12 days after infection. One eye usually suffers - it begins to water, the eyelids swell, small formations similar to grains are noticeable on the mucous membrane. The animal begins to fear the light. If inflammation passes to the cornea, keratitis occurs. Its signs are redness of the eye, corneal clouding, ulceration on it.
Treatment of the disease depends on the specific pathogen. So, moraxella dies from streptomycin, sulfonamides, oxytetracycline. Rickettsia are collar-sensitive. Mycoplasmas (some of which also cause bovine mycoplasmosis) do not like antibiotics, but only the last generation; to traditional, they are often resistant. Infection caused by chlamydia is treated with tetracycline antibiotics.
Remember that many diseases of cattle can be transmitted to humans.
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