Many people treat this disease as “cool”, considering it only a temporary bowel disorder, but dyspepsia in calves annually mows up to 20% of the young. The pathology is insidious, because the morphological signs of it are similar to the usual indigestion. Therefore, it is important to define the disease at an early stage. Next, we will gradually understand the intricacies of diagnosis, talk about the forms of the disease and its prevention, and most importantly, will be given a scheme for the possible treatment of a dangerous illness.
Since many owners, and some veterinarians, consider this disease a mild disorder, dyspepsia does not keep medical records of half of the cases. Most professionals involved in this problem divide the pathology into 2 areas: infectious and non-infectious.
The etiology of a non-infectious type of disease is usually associated with profound metabolic disorders in cows before and during pregnancy. Often, these violations are caused by mistakes in the diet of cows, unbalanced nutrition, as well as poor quality of the feed and nutrient solutions.
This also includes improper maintenance and feeding of the calf in the first hours of its life. Most often, the baby is given colostrum at the wrong time, the first lure is done too late. Sometimes the owners use cold colostrum for feeding. Keeping in a cold or raw stall can also cause dyspepsia in calves.
Calves and adult cows should always be kept in a dry and warm room. It is important to eliminate drafts, and also it is necessary to closely monitor the presence of a dry, soft and warm bedding.
Toxicosis in young
There is toxic dyspepsia in calves. Often, sick babies are born from cows with signs of ketosis or osteodystrophy. This type of disease appears as a result of poor quality control of feed. Animals are given food with a high content of such dangerous toxins as butyric acid and gossypol.
But the most powerful and dangerous forms of toxemia occur when, along with traditional food, animals eat up toxic mushrooms. The nature of most toxins is such that they accumulate in the udder of the cows and from there, along with colostrum, they enter the digestive tract of the young, where they cause the disease.
Toxic dyspepsia of newborn calves is considered the most dangerous. Due to the absence of a specific specific pathogen, it cannot be considered infectious. But this pathology is caused by microbes of different types and forms, respectively, and the treatment of toxic dyspepsia in calves, closer to the infectious direction.
What are the signs of the disease
Here it is important to determine in time which form we are dealing with. In dyspepsia of newborn calves, own research and the experience of a veterinarian are of great importance
In the traditional form of the disease, calf has occasional diarrhea. The activity of the animal during dyspepsia decreases, the baby quickly gets tired, becomes passive and sluggish. Often the pathology is manifested in an aggravated reaction to noise and external stimuli. Any sharp cotton or touch makes the calf start. After a couple of days, loose stools turn bright yellow with an uncharacteristic and very pungent odor.
With toxic dyspepsia, morphology will manifest itself in the first days and even hours of a baby’s life. Newborn calves can eat poorly or refuse to eat at all. Against the background of a noticeable collapse, a decrease in body temperature is observed. The skin becomes cold, and in the diarrhea there are clots of mucus. The bluish color of the calf's mouth and the initial manifestations of conjunctivitis indicate a toxic base.
All pathological changes are recorded in the autopsy report. In most cases, with dyspepsia, the highest degree of calf depletion is recorded against the background of complete dehydration.
With the retreat of the eyelids, the drooping of the eyeballs is noted. Serous integuments are clearly dry, the skin is difficult to separate when cut. Cellulose under the skin of the calf resembles jelly and has an unnaturally pale color. The heart muscle is weak and rather flabby. External cardiac covers do not have epicardial fat deposits, partial dilatation is noted. The endocardium of a calf with dyspepsia in a patient may have traces of point hemorrhages. The spleen capsule is hard to remove, and the spleen itself has unnaturally sharp edges.
But most of all the changes the act of opening fixes in the calf gastrointestinal tract:
- filiform and point hemorrhages;
- red spots and stripes;
- mucus strongly swollen;
- lymph nodes in the area of the omentum inflamed;
- abomasum can be filled with curd.
Sparing diet treatment
In case of a mild course of a non-toxic form of the disease, the treatment of dyspepsia in calves can be performed by means of a sparing diet. The calf is separated from the main group and transferred to an empty and warm pen. Within 12 hours after detection of the disease and isolation of the animal, it should be watered only with warm (38 degrees), lightly salted water.
With severe gastrointestinal upset, diarrhea in the calf will help stop intestinal lavage with potassium permanganate with distilled water, the concentration of the solution is 0.002%.
After the brine immediately give pure colostrum is not worth it, it must be diluted in half with some warm herbal decoction. Of the medicinal herbs, conifer needles (spruce, pine, juniper) are most often used. Daily feeding of a calf stretch to 5-6 receptions. Gradually, the amount of decoction is reduced, and the colostrum is increased.
During the entire course of treatment, the calf is fed only from the nipples. The fact is that if you pour the colostrum solution into any container, the baby will start drinking in large, greedy sips, which can lead to indigestion.
Visceral blockade Novocain
Such a blockade is especially effective in the acute course of dyspepsia in calves. If signs of the chronic form are looked through, then it is better to refuse this way. For the blockade, a novocaine solution is used at a concentration of 0.5% at the rate of 1 ml per 1 kg of weight.
By acting directly on the calf's digestive tract, we suppress the center of the disease itself. Another positive point is a fairly high percentage of absorbability of the solution and, as a consequence, a rapid therapeutic effect.
The technology itself is a simple solution, but it requires some experience and knowledge of the anatomy of the animal.
To begin with, the calf must be well fixed in a standing position. Then find the right "hungry hole" - the injection is made exactly in it. The needle is immersed by about 20-30 mm, after which the solution is smoothly injected. If the needle is inserted in the right place, the medicine will enter freely. In severe cases, penicillin or streptomycin can be added to procaine.
Treatment with electrolyte and energy preparations
In the acute form of calf dyspepsia, there is severe dehydration. Salts and vital mineral compounds are released from the body along with the fluid. In this case, one diet and proper nutrition is not enough. It is necessary to urgently replenish the potential of the organism with all available means. And the fastest of them is a direct injection of the solution into a vein, muscle tissue or into the abdominal cavity.
For these purposes, there are ready-made plasma substitutes, for example, Kolosov solution or Sharabrin solution. If the ready-made preparations were not at hand, then you can try to make a mixture for the calf yourself. The most famous is the Ringer-Locke solution, it includes:
- sodium chloride - 9 g;
- calcium chloride - 0.2 g;
- powdered glucose - 5 g;
- sodium bicarbonate - 0.2 g;
- distilled water - 1 l.
It is necessary to mix all these ingredients, except sodium bicarbonate, boil them and filter. Sodium bicarbonate is added immediately prior to injection. When introduced into the body of the calf, the temperature of the solution should be 38 degrees.
Special treatment of the disease
The body is very depleted from dyspepsia calf even with the introduction of electrolyte and energy solutions are not able to actively resist pathogenic microorganisms. In this case, to increase the effectiveness of treatment, it is necessary to actively introduce antibiotics, as well as sulfanilamide group drugs.
Preparations for the treatment of dyspepsia can be prescribed separately or in mixtures. For weak calves, all medicines are either injected or mixed into liquid food. There are drugs that are administered rectally in the form of sticks or candles. Relatively strong animals can be given pills.
Of antibiotics, calves are usually prescribed synthomycin, tetracycline, colimycin, chloramphenicol. The dosage per 1 kg of weight ranges from 0.015 to 0.02 g. The sulfanilamide group is represented by sulfadimesine, sulfatrol, phthalazole and norsulfazole. The dosage here is about the same as that of antibiotics.
Medical fees and solutions
Until antibiotics and other similar drugs appeared, people actively used various kinds of medicinal herbs and decoctions to treat dyspepsia in calves. Smart farmers still keep these recipes and, on occasion, use them to help a sick calf in the event of illness.
Take 3 pieces of cherry fruit and mix them with 2 pieces of blueberries. To prepare the broth, take 1 part of the mixture and pour in 10 parts of water. Depending on the weight and degree of the calf's disease, he is given from a quarter to half a glass of broth 3-4 times a day.
The following recipe uses 1 part of the silverweed root, erect, and 4 parts of the serpent highlander root. The decoction is prepared and given to the calf in the same way as in the previous case.
You can take in equal proportions the root of the potentilla erect, chamomile and mint, all this mix and brew. To a glass of water is added 1 tablespoon of the mixture. The norm for a calf is 1-2 cups of broth per day.
Or this recipe: mix oak root with calamus root in equal proportions. Here on a tablespoon is half a glass of water. After boiling, the solution should be infused for half an hour, then filtered and given to a calf in a quarter cup 3-4 times a day.
Disease prevention in pregnant queens
It is believed that the prevention of dyspepsia calves should be started even when they are in the womb, and ideally it is desirable to prepare cows before conception. The main problem is hypovitaminosis. All enzymes are built on vitamins, respectively, when the activity of certain enzymes decreases, the fetus begins to develop incorrectly.
The best way is to feed the herd with a variety of vitaminized feeds. In the diet must be silage, hay, roots, cabbage leaves. Concentrates should be given hay, pine and grass meal.
If, for one reason or another, the diet of cows cannot be enriched with sufficient amounts of vitamins, then in the second half of pregnancy, the animals are given targeted vitamin injections and infusions. At the same time, vitamins A, C, D, E are given. Vitamin B is not needed in cows, they produce it in sufficient quantity.
The importance of the first feeding
In the prevention of the disease in a newborn calf, the first complementary feeding is fundamental. It is done as soon as the initial signs of a sucking reflex appear. But do not delay, the permissible delay is not more than 2 hours from the moment of birth.
If the baby does not receive his portion of colostrum, he will intuitively look for it. As a result, the calf will lick everything that will be next to him, and this is bedding, fencing, walls, and so on. Thus, instead of strengthening the complementary foods, he will get a solution of pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria that will cause the disease.
The cow in the first postpartum milk contains the monthly rate of vitamin "A". At the first feeding, the main gram-positive intestinal microflora is formed. At birth, the calf practically does not have immune globulins; it also receives the lion's share of these substances during the first feeding.
The mucosa in the small intestine of the baby can absorb the colostrum directly, that is, without prior cleavage. In postpartum milk, a very large percentage of magnesium salts, which act as a laxative, and help the calf get rid of fetal feces.
Disease prevention on disadvantaged farms
It all begins with the guidance of perfect purity and forced fortification of pregnant cows. But in such farms there is another problem. A newborn calf cannot fully absorb the standard amount of colostrum, which is about 6 liters per day.
There are several ways out, but the Shcherbakov method is considered the most effective. Its essence is in dosed feeding and dilution of colostrum of various kinds with solutions and decoctions. But drinking solutions according to Shcherbakov should be done only when the first signs of the disease appear, that is, intestinal upset.
From the finished compositions can take solutions Sharabrin or Ringer. Besides them, a decoction of flaxseeds, as well as a simple saline solution, works well.
Farmers who underestimate the danger of dyspepsia in young stock are at risk of being left without a significant proportion of offspring. And the calves that survive will constantly get sick. Share the techniques and recipes outlined in the article with your friends. Perhaps your like will become a lifesaver for some calf.
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