The causative agents of diseases such as paratyphoid calves (salmonellosis) are Salmonella bacteria. Outwardly, they look like sticks, with round ends. These pathogens have good resistance, and only special disinfectants can destroy them. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study in greater detail the causes, actions of pathogens, symptoms, and the possibilities of treating a disease.
The primary cause of infection is inadequate care.
The appearance of paratyphoid infection in calves in most cases occurs immediately after birth through the respiratory system or the umbilical cord. The carrier, most often, is cattle. Pathogens are secreted naturally.
To prevent infection, you should regularly clean the room in which the calves are located, since the harmful Salmonella bacteria originate in the dirt and unsanitary conditions.
Characteristic signs of paratyphoid fever are:
- "cooling" of the limbs;
- fatigue (the animal is very much lying).
If, besides all the above, the pulse and breathing increase, there is a chance that the animal is infected with paratyphoid fever. But you shouldn’t do something against him right away, for the beginning it is necessary to pass tests, the results of which will confirm or refute the diagnosis.
If the diagnosis is confirmed, there is a risk of swelling of the brain, and the occurrence of seizures. In addition, there may be hemorrhages in the kidneys, and an increase in organs such as the liver and spleen.
Provided that assistance is provided on time, there is a chance to save the young or reduce mortality to a minimum. Otherwise, the calf may die in the first few days after infection.
If a person eats the meat of an animal sick with paratyphoid fever, he risks, at a minimum, serious poisoning.
Do not miss the moment in first aid
For quick and effective treatment of salmonellosis, in the first place, it is necessary to isolate the sick calf in order to avoid contamination of the rest of the herd. Then fully disinfect the room. After contacting the veterinarian. If it turns out that your farm is susceptible to infections of this kind, you must use a special antitoxic serum that is injected intramuscularly.
"Bacteriophage" - one of the most effective drugs against such diseases. In one pack, there are 4 bottles of 20 ml. You need to give 2.5 bottles by mouth 2-3 times a day. If salmonellosis is particularly difficult, you should increase the dosage by 2 times.
"Bacteriophage" can be used not only for treatment during the illness, but also for prevention, in the minimum dosage.
Efficacy is different and such drugs as: "Clamoxyl LA" and "Terramycin LA". The first is administered intramuscularly (or subcutaneously), at a dosage of 1 ml per 10 kg of weight. If the symptoms have not disappeared, it is necessary to repeat the injection after 2 days. The second drug is much stronger, and reaches a maximum concentration in the blood in about 30 minutes, and a therapeutic concentration in the blood and tissues in 4 days. Therefore, the whole course of treatment is just one injection deep intramuscularly, in the same dosage.
Also, the use of several drugs, such as:
All drugs are alternately added to a uniform feed, at a dosage of 3 to 8 mg per kg of body weight. Example: in the morning add furazolidone, in the afternoon levomycetin, and in the evening sulgin. In addition, it is necessary to give nicotinic acid in the proportion of 100 mg per kg of feed.
All of the above medicines are available in tablets, it is not recommended to be crushed. If it is not possible to add drugs to the feed, it can be given just by oral route.
Timely prevention - saves time and money for treatment
The first rule in the prevention of paratyphoid fever. Regular cleaning of the room in which the animals are located will prevent infection. In a clean, spacious, dry room, with full feeding and care, the risk of disease is reduced.
The second, no less important rule - vaccination of cows. Livestock can get dangerous infectious diseases, they can later weaken the immunity of the newborn calf, which in the early stages of life is already very weak. And salmonellosis is not the worst of them. Timely vaccination, can prevent infection of cattle even with diseases such as anthrax.
If the calf was born from an unvaccinated cow, then in the first weeks of life he must be isolated, in order to avoid infection. In addition, you need to conduct regular vaccinations to strengthen the immune system. This task is perfectly handled by drugs like concentrated formolacs vaccine. But do not self-medicate, all drugs should be prescribed by a veterinarian.
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