Acute or chronic fasciolosis in cattle is characterized by impaired digestive organs, anemia, severe edema. The causative agents of the disease are fasciola - worms, which are parasitic in the gallbladder and bile ducts. They feed on the blood of their victim. Animals pick up fascioliasis when the larvae are swallowed with food or water. With timely adequate treatment of the cow, it is possible to get rid of the disease in a month.
Mechanism of disease development
During movement through the body, fasciols have a pathogenic effect on the intestines and liver. Worms grow quickly and begin to put pressure on the tissue, and their spikes damage the bile ducts. The negative impact of parasites causes rupture of the bile ducts of the liver. Excreted toxins cause a severe allergic reaction in the affected animal.
With fascioliasis, the changes begin first in the liver, and in the absence of proper treatment, the remaining systems and organs of the cows suffer. During the blood test, a small amount of phosphorus, calcium, hemoglobin and red blood cells are detected. The number of biliburin increases, therefore, eosinophilia develops.
Under the influence of the activity of worms in the body of the cattle there is a shortage of vitamin A and B-12. Due to the movement of parasites in the liver, spore bacteria are activated. As a result, necrotic hepatitis is formed.
How does the disease spread
Fascioliasis in cattle often occurs during grazing of individuals that have not been dewormed and examined by a veterinarian. Wild animals play a large role in the spread of parasites.
Outbreaks of the disease are observed when cattle graze in abandoned meadows. First of all, it is the territory in the lowlands of the rivers. An area with marshes is a food base for freshwater mollusk, which is an intermediate victim of worms. Accordingly, such pastures are unsafe.
A large number of showers or strong warming contribute to the development of the disease. In the direction of the North of Russia, the number of diseased cows decreases, and fasciolosis proceeds more easily. Cold areas are less affected by the disease, which is not the case with warm areas. Pathology is especially common in the Astrakhan region, Krasnodar Territory, Stavropol Territory, where the most favorable conditions.
Fascioliasis in cows is one of the most common helminth infections in Russia and abroad.
During the opening of the dead or slaughtered animals in their liver can be found fasciola. They are also located on the way to the biliary tissues of the organ. There is a rupture of the mucous membrane of the liver, necrotic foci the size of the head of a pin. The jejunum and duodenum are affected. On them are small points of hemorrhage.
In the acute form of the disease, an escudate is fixed in the abdominal cavity, the gallbladder is enlarged, and the liver is partially destroyed and the whole is covered with bleeding holes.
The chronic form is characterized by an increase in bile ducts, chronic hepatitis and halangitis. If the disease is in advanced form, cirrhosis is observed. During examination, parasites can be squeezed out of the organ section.
Clinical signs of worms
The condition of animals depends on the type of worms, the intensity of the disease and immunity. Also important are the conditions of detention, the diet of cattle. When the body has struck several fasciol, veterinarians will not notice any signs of a negative impact on the gastrointestinal tract and liver. If the animals are healthy and their body resists the disease well, it proceeds without clear symptoms. Signs, if any, are very weak.
The situation changes when the beast is weakened. The reason may be poor-quality food, the lack of regular grazing, any associated diseases that adversely affect the body of cows. In this case, the symptoms are pronounced, and the livestock can quickly die. Different acute and chronic forms of the disease.
Acute and chronic course
Acute fascioliasis in cattle is extremely rare. The disease is characterized by the following features:
- the animal feels discomfort during palpation of the liver;
- pregnant cows miscarry;
- the skin is very sensitive;
- the amount of milk is greatly reduced;
- oppressed cattle.
Also, after abortion, purulent endometritis may occur in pregnant cows. This is due to the detention of the placenta.
If there are sexually mature parasites in the body of the cow, a chronic course of the disease is observed. Juveniles tolerate fascioliasis as hard as adults. Clinical signs are similar to the acute form, but they are less pronounced. The following symptoms are added:
- hair loss;
- eye drop;
- pale mucous membranes;
- coarse hair.
Veterinarians make a diagnosis based on clinical data and laboratory tests. If you suspect the presence of the disease, helminthicoprological studies are mandatory, which allow you to confirm or deny fascioliasis.
Also, laboratories use sequential washing of feces, but experts say that they are not effective enough. The most effective method of Scherbovich is the helmintokoproscopy. In addition, allergic and serological tests are used.
The easiest way to diagnose after the death or slaughter of an animal. Especially if there are many worms and they are sexually mature. In this case, it is enough to make a liver incision. Parasites live in an organ cut or in fluid from the abdominal cavity.
Treatment of helminth pathology
Treatment of animals is carried out with the help of drugs for deworming. The following drugs have positively proven themselves: Disalan, Sulfen, Acemidophen, Hexachloroparaxyl, Closantel.
"Disalane" must be added to the feed of cows. 0.01g / kg is enough. Sulfene is combined with feed in an amount of 0.1 g / kg. You can also use 1% flour suspension.
"Acemidophen" is mixed with the feed in a dosage of 0.15 g / kg. "Hexachloroparaxylene" is also introduced into the feed. It is required to mix with 1 kg of chopped grain 0.5 g of the product (per 1 kg of weight). "Closantel" is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. It takes 1 ml per 10 kg of weight or 1 ml per 20 kg, respectively.
Therapy is prescribed individually. Veterinarians take into account the age of the cow, the degree of infection, the results of laboratory studies. It is impossible to engage in self-treatment, otherwise it may result in the death of the animal.
Prevention of the development of the disease
It is necessary to take timely preventive measures to prevent contamination of animals. Disease stalls rarely occur, which cannot be said about summer time when cows are grazing. Therefore, every 2 months it is necessary to change the pasture plots, use only cultural territories and carry out de-worming of cattle.
It is necessary to disinfect barns regularly and disinfect manure with a biothermal method. It is impossible to take it to the field, otherwise feed plants may become infected.
Twice a year you need to take the feces of animals to the laboratory. This is done during the transition to winter maintenance and before the beginning of the summer grazing period. It is necessary to take samples of feces from 1/10 of the herd. If tests show parasite eggs, the room should be immediately sanitized and unplanned deworming should be carried out.
Pasture Preparation Rules
To prevent contamination of cows need to break the cycle of transformation of worms. This can be done only by eliminating intermediate victims. It is necessary to regularly dry the wetlands using land improvement measures. Mollusks, in which the parasitic worms, will be able to destroy if you burn dry grass. Also, they are effectively affected by the solution of copper sulfate. For preparation of working solution means needs to be dissolved in a proportion 1: 5000.
Hay from such areas can be fed to cows at least 4 months after harvesting. If agricultural enterprises or farms are located in disadvantaged areas, preventive deworming should be carried out regularly. This will allow for the timely destruction of parasites.
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