Parasitic disease - cysticercosis of cattle (or finnoz) occurs when larvae of bovine tapeworm enter the organs of ruminants. As they mature, the larvae grow into tapeworms (cestodes), and begin to spread throughout the body, destroying healthy organs. The disease is inherent in the districts of the Altai Territory, Yakutia and regions of the Non-Black Earth Region. It is found in Kazakhstan, as well as in Central Asia and Azerbaijan. The identified cattle finnoze must immediately be localized.
The causes of the disease
The main carrier of the parasite - man, intermediate - cattle. The main causative agent of cysticercosis is considered cysticercus (vesicular worm or Finn), which has an oval grayish configuration. The inner part of the bubble consists entirely of liquid medium, the surface is equipped with a head with four powerful suckers. With their help, it settles on the walls of the intestinal tract and begins a rapid development in the tapeworm.
The initial source of disease transmission to animals is man. Its excrement may contain bull chains. Infected feces, getting into the yard or pasture, dry up, and the eggs of worms spread through the hay, food debris and drinking water, which consumes walking stock. The disease of the animal occurs inevitably, in the case of the consumption of contaminated food and water.
Sick deer carry danger
The most acute problem of the occurrence of the disease for residents of the Northern regions, the main diet of which is raw deer meat, used together with the brain.
The ailment is quite widespread among these animals. Poor sanitary conditions and non-observance of elementary hygienic norms on pastures lead to the development of an invasive (penetrating) stage of cysticercosis pathogens. Infection progresses directly when the larvae enter the deer brain.
In turn, the pathogenic bacterium enters the human intestine for several reasons:
- a greater likelihood of infection is eating poorly roasted or raw meat;
- poor quality meat examination;
- neglect of basic hygienic procedures (washing hands after using the toilet, especially in the public).
Features of infection in livestock
Getting into a living organism, a Finn (worm) actively begins its growth and infection of healthy organs occurs. At 2-3 months, comes the finished stage of maturity cysticercus. At this time, the growth of segments begins and their filling with full-fledged eggs, ready for distribution throughout the healthy organism and its infection.
As the bovine chain grows, which can reach 10 meters in length, it releases up to 400 million eggs per year. If for any reason they are released into the habitat of cattle, then there is a chance of infection of animals with cysticercosis.
Vulnerable organs of cattle
Gastric juice in the organs of the animal eats away the shell of an egg that has entered the stomach. The released embryo begins penetration into the blood vessels of the circulatory system, into the walls of the intestines, infects adipose tissues and striated muscles of cattle. There are cases of damage to the lungs, liver and brain of the animal.
Epizootology of the disease varies from seasonality. Cattle are more likely to be infected during the autumn and spring seasons.
Cysticercosis in cattle may begin to spread to the pectoral and neck muscles. The disease often passes and circulates in the area of the chewing and intercostal regions. The larvae of the tongue and heart muscles of the animal become infected.
The initial stage of infection, and often subsequent ones, are asymptomatic. But in the event of the occurrence of the following symptoms, the immediate intervention of the veterinary services is required to confirm the disease and take measures to prevent the infection of other animals:
- a sharp increase in body temperature;
- decreased appetite;
- loose stools;
- soreness with pressure on the mesh and abomasum areas;
- mucous membranes become dry and pale;
- excessive activity of the animal;
- increased heart rate or, conversely, its reduction;
- sluggish movements and soreness in the muscular regions with pressure;
- pruritus and swelling;
- blindness, impaired coordination in movements (with infection of the eyeballs in an animal).
The manifestation of symptoms of infection in livestock lasts from 5 to 8 days. Within 8-12 days, all disturbed functions of the body are restored. By the 14th day of the disease, the animal fully returns to a full state without external signs of the disease. Infection of cattle goes into an asymptomatic stage of development.
Some sick cows, after a weekly presence in the body of infection, have a temperature jump up to 40 degrees. Then there is a sharp decrease to 34. In most cases, such symptoms lead to the death of an infected animal the very next day.
Diagnosis of cysticercosis during the life of a cow is not possible. In cases of regular inspection of the oral cavity of the animal (mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue), it is possible to identify worms. As a rule, the detection of the disease can occur by chance or experimentally after slaughtering. Usually signs of the presence of parasites can be found in the heart muscles with their longitudinal or transverse cutting, as well as in the mastic and intercostal muscles.
Using the fluorescent lamp OLD-41 makes the detection of larvae at the opening of masseter (muscles involved in the act of chewing) many times more efficient. As for the immunological methods for identifying foci of cattle infection, they have not found a worthy use in this matter.
When inspecting the carcass of a dead animal and if larvae are found in any part of it, the infected meat becomes unusable.
Helps the whole flock
Methods and means of treating finnoza in cattle are not fully developed. A drug that actively helps a sick animal and a whole herd is praziquantel (dronzit). But its use is expensive and time consuming for veterinary specialists.
To prevent infection in large horned animals, firstly, it is necessary to carry out the slaughter of livestock in specialized areas intended for these purposes. Secondly, to conduct a medical examination of employees of the farm at least once a year, but it is better in the quarter, for infection with helminths. It is important to educate staff on compliance with standards and rules of personal hygiene. The goal is to exclude infection and further spread of the disease.
We clean the toilets and check the soil.
Bathrooms in farms, pastures and livestock complexes should be clean and functional. When more than three larvae are found in cattle carcasses, immediate work is needed to destroy them.
Surface soil should be systematically checked for possible infection. Processing in case of detection of sources of infection must begin immediately. On the territory of farms and farms, comprehensive veterinary expertise should be carried out regularly.
Cysticercosis is the most serious disease that requires comprehensive measures to prevent it. Mostly, people are infected by eating meat products, and animals by non-compliance by people with the simplest standards of hygiene.
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