Despite the efforts of veterinarians and zootechnicians, hoof diseases in cows are still one of the main problems. This is due to the large mass of cows, respectively, the legs of the animal, and especially the hoof, are constantly subjected to serious stress. Timely assistance will help to quickly solve the problem. Next, we consider the main types of hoof diseases in cattle. And most importantly - tell you what to do in certain situations.
Causes and types of diseases
If the overall growth of cattle ends at a certain stage, then the hoof in animals grows constantly. They can be compared with nails in humans. In summer, when the animal moves, the horny layer is erased naturally. Often problems begin during the winter period in the stall. The issue is particularly acute on large livestock farms, where summer pastures are not provided at all.
The cow, like most of the hoofed, has a two-toed hoof. Each of these "fingers" is covered with horny tissue. In the plantar part, in the center of the hoof there is a groove about the size of a quail egg.
The main cause of most hoof diseases is the continuous growth of horny tissue. If this fabric is not washed or cut, the foot will crack, rotting may begin, and there it is not far before the appearance of the fungus.
Problems can begin due to improper animal keeping, poor or insufficiently fortified food, and can also be a side effect of a more serious illness.
Phlegmon ungulate corolla
The disease primarily affects the subcutaneous portion in the area of the hoofed corolla. If you do not immediately treat the lesion, then at the site of mild inflammation, suppuration will arise very quickly, which will burst and turn into an open wound.
The first sign of illness is lameness. If suddenly your burenka limped, then you need to examine her hoof. At the initial stage, cellulitis manifests itself as a small cushion above the horny growth. Here you need to cut the stubble, wipe the pillow with alcohol and apply a bandage with ichthyol or other similar ointment.
If the hearth burst, then it is useless to treat it with ointment, radical measures are needed here. In the area of the affected area, horn tissue is grinded and a mixture of novocaine and penicillin is injected (novocaine 0.5%, penicillin at the rate of 150 units per 1 kg of live weight).
After the blockade begins to act, the wound is opened. The pus is cleaned, and a bandage is applied with any healing agent, for example, with streptocide. In advanced cases, urotropine is injected intravenously with calcium chloride.
Aseptic skin inflammation
This disease can manifest in 2 types. The first is a serous look. It is an acute form and proceeds rapidly. Serosofibrous form refers to chronic sluggish species.
Here also the first sign is lameness. In this case, the horny tissue is fragmentary or completely colored in yellow or yellowish-red color. When pressing on the affected area, the cow is in pain.
In domestic cows, aseptic inflammation occurs either as a result of local injuries, or because of long walks on asphalt or rocky terrain. On farms, this disease is caused by the lack or poor quality of litter.
Treatment of aseptic inflammation is simple. At the first sign of such a disease, a cold compress should be applied to the inflamed area for a couple of days. If this does not help and the inflammation continues to grow, the legs of the cow are heated with warm clay, plus you constantly need to make warm salt baths.
Pododermatit is already serious
Pododermatitis (hoof rot in cows) is considered perhaps the most dangerous disease in this area. In the literature, it can be referred to as Mortellaro disease.
The hooves are covered with cracks, inside of which purulent processes begin. The contour of the corneal tissue of the corolla may appear fistula, and the sole is often exfoliated. The animal's temperature rises, the cow falls to its feet and suffers noticeably.
Cure hoofed rot can be, but will have to tinker considerably. Initially, the animal's legs are fixed, after which you need to make a Novocain blockade with an antibiotic.
Inflamed horny tissue should be cut out completely. After that, the exfoliated part of the sole is peeled off. From the bursting fistula, the upper skin is cut off and everything is washed with hydrogen peroxide. Then a bandage with a healing composition is applied, which changes every 3-4 days. You can use the ointment "Levomekol."
It occurs either in weak animals, or as a result of improper keeping of cattle. An unsteady, unsteady gait may indicate a disease, often the legs of a healthy-looking cow bend.
The reason for this inadequate behavior is the uneven development of the "fingers" of the hoof. The external share becomes slightly larger than the internal one, respectively, the load is unevenly distributed.
For the attentive farmer to identify the disease of the cow at an early stage is not difficult. It is only necessary to regularly and carefully inspect the hoof. No medication for treatment is required. It is enough to stuff a kind of horseshoe onto the inner finger in time and make sure that it does not wear out.
Hoof erosion can lead to severe joint deformities and inflammation of the ligaments, and this is a direct path to culling the cow.
It is not known who first came up with such a poetic name, but this disease does not become less dangerous. A strawberry disease manifests itself in the fact that small red hillocks jump out between the toes of the hoof, as well as along the contour of the corolla.
Judging by the behavior of animals, at the initial stage these bumps deliver only mild discomfort. But if you do not pay enough attention to all this, the cow skin around the hooves can seriously become inflamed, even until fistulae appears.
In the modern veterinary market there are several drugs that are positioned as a unique means of strawberry disease. But from the words of experienced farmers, all these drugs, firstly, are expensive, and secondly, there is little sense from them.
In the people, the first and foremost means of such a scourge is considered to be cleanliness on the farm, good food and affectionate attitude towards the cows.
What is dangerous laminitis
With laminitis under the skin, and especially in soft tissues, excess fluid is collected around the cow's hooves, as well as jelly clots, which, with due experience, are not difficult to feel with your hands.
Laminitis is indicated by sharp pain, an unsteady gait, and poor animal resistance. When the first signs appear, you should immediately inspect, and most importantly, carefully probe the soft tissues.
If you leave these symptoms without attention, then such negligence can lead to deformation of the horn tissue of the hoof. As a result, it cracks, an infection gets there, and this may be followed by the rapid development of the same hoofed rot. In addition, the bump with excess fluid easily breaks through and turns into an open wound, with all the ensuing consequences.
The main cause of laminitis is considered to be an abnormal diet, vitamin deficiency and poor animal maintenance, sometimes laminitis occurs during pregnancy. Treat it with warm compresses and salt baths.
The first sign of hoofed disease
A limp is the very “litmus test” that indicates the appearance of a real problem. It is not at all necessary that the hooves will be the primary cause of its occurrence, although it is necessary to begin the search with them. After all, diseases of the hooves of cows regularly occur both on large farms and in households, the main thing is not to run them.
Initially, all hooves need to be cleaned and carefully examined for mechanical damage and open wounds. Next on the list is checking the color of the horny tissue and the condition of the skin around it. If this is all right, then the sole is checked for erosion.
Also, lameness can cause joint diseases, but, according to experienced farmers, if half a lame, it means you need to change the diet and control farm cleanliness more tightly.
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