It is worth remembering that anthrax in cattle is a serious disease, leading to death in more than 60% of cases. The disease has an extremely high rate of spread, which can lead to serious epidemics on farms. For these reasons, herds of cattle are subject to compulsory vaccination, making it possible to reduce the risk of infection to animals to a minimum. However, he still remains, and it is worth remembering.
Externally, the anthrax vaccine resembles a turbid-white liquid stored in glass ampoules. Its composition includes 55 strain, which is placed in 30% glycerin solution. Strain is a live pathogens designed to produce immunity in animals.
For 1 ml of solution, there are 20-25 million live viruses. The drug is produced in ampoules, dosage of 20, 50, 100 and 200 milliliters. Depending on the type and weight of the animal, the doctor prescribes the appropriate dosage for vaccination.
But no matter how effective the developed method of combating anthrax was, it has its drawbacks. It is important to keep the vaccine properly, otherwise it will become unusable and should be destroyed. If white flakes began to form in it, then the ampoule should be immediately destroyed by boiling in soda solution.
Expected result after vaccination
It should be understood that a vaccine against anthrax can not be a cure. Vaccination only creates immunity in cattle against the virus. The effect of its use can be seen 10 days after the injection. If the individual is already infected, then vaccination is useless and ineffective.
With regards to the effect manifested in adults, the vaccine lasts for 1 year. Sometimes the period may increase or decrease. It all depends on the characteristics of the body of cattle, and a veterinarian can give accurate information after a complete examination of the cattle.
With young stock things are a little different. For young livestock, the injected vaccine lasts approximately 3 months, after which the animals should be vaccinated again.
Terms, methods and dosages
The anthrax vaccine can be administered to animals in two ways. The first is the subcutaneous classic method. With this introduction, a standard specimen has 1 cu. see medication. To enter it should be in the middle third of the neck.
The second method of vaccine administration is intradermal. With this method, 2 cubic meters are injected into cattle. see the drug in the crotch area, where wool does not grow.
Regarding the timing of vaccination - the exact dates of vaccinations set by a veterinarian. According to generally accepted standards, an adult cattle is administered the drug once a year. Young calves are given the first vaccine at three months, the next six months later. Further, the scheme of vaccination of young animals and adults becomes one.
Situations in which the herd is to be inoculated
Vaccination against anthrax must be carried out under the supervision of a veterinarian. He prescribes the order of processing the herd. But, there are general rules that cow breeders need to prevent infection:
- vaccinations are administered to all animals that are present in the herd, except for those who have weakened immunity or are ill with something at this moment;
- when buying a new individual, it must be vaccinated, it is allowed to the general herd 2 weeks after the procedure;
- if one individual is infected with anthrax, the entire flock needs to be vaccinated, regardless of when it was given earlier;
After the cattle vaccine is introduced, the animals must be monitored for 10 days and carefully monitor the immune response. In addition, it is not recommended to load cattle during this period.
Like all drugs, the anthrax vaccine has several contraindications that are important to follow:
- It is prohibited to vaccinate if biological medicines are already administered to the animal;
- after administration of the vaccine, animals should not be given antibiotics or antiseptics;
- it is forbidden to vaccinate calves up to three months;
- the vaccine should not be administered if it is hot or cold outside;
- vaccines should not be given to diseased individuals or to those who have only been ill;
- It is forbidden to administer the drug to cows in late pregnancy and undergoing surgery.
These "prohibitions" are related to the fact that in the above situations, the immunity of cattle does not work at full capacity, and the procedure may harm the animal rather than help.
Rules and appearances
Vaccination of cattle should be accompanied by full sanitation. The injection site should be treated with 70% ethanol. Inventory, syringe and needle should be disinfected both before vaccination and after it.
Syringes and needles should not just be cleaned with a special solution; devices should be boiled in it for at least two hours. This is important in order not to cause an additional infection and not to give the immune system an additional burden.
When the cow is vaccinated, a slight swelling may form at the injection site. Do not worry, it will pass in a few days. And you should pay attention to such symptoms as fever, weakness and severe swelling. In this case, the animal should be immediately isolated from the general herd and treated under the supervision of a veterinarian.
Vaccinations against anthrax must be done under the supervision of a specialist. During the vaccine period, close supervision is necessary for animals. The veterinarian is obliged to monitor how the immunity reacts to the injected drug, and take action at the slightest deviation from the norm.
The severity of this procedure is confirmed by the fact that for each flock a separate act of vaccination is drawn up, which includes the date, the number of vaccinated individuals, the series and number of drugs used. This is done to be able to track unprocessed animals.
The act must be kept with the doctor for 2 years. Individuals that have not been vaccinated for any reason prohibiting vaccination are kept separately from the herd. They should be vaccinated as soon as the doctors allow the procedure. On such cattle is a separate act.
Products from vaccinated animals
In almost all cases, the use of products from milk and meat of vaccinated animals is allowed. True, there are a number of exceptions.
If a cattle does not tolerate vaccination, it rises in temperature and there is a decline in strength, it is not allowed to use its milk. The only way to use it is to boil it and give the milk to animals as feed.
As for the slaughter of cattle for meat, it is allowed to do this after ten days from the date of vaccination. If the animal dies before this deadline, then its carcass should be burned. If an individual is slaughtered before 10 days have passed, but it is not done because of vaccination, its meat is given for processing.
Remember that you should not joke with anthrax, which can cause an epidemic among cattle and among people. Therefore, it is more rational to kill and burn one individual than to substitute the whole herd.
Preventive measures and regulations for veterinary staff
It is worth knowing that working with a vaccine can harm the person himself if mishandled. Therefore, it is important to strictly comply with certain regulations for all employees who vaccinate livestock.
An employee with cuts, ulcers or other open wounds is not allowed to vaccinate animals, and if the serum gets on the skin or other parts of the human body, they should be immediately washed with plenty of water.
Be sure to remember that if a vaccine is accidentally administered to a person, you should urgently go to the hospital. If it only gets on clothes or to the environment, this place should be treated with a solution of 10% sodium.
Remember, you can not treat anthrax frivolously, because not only animals can suffer, but also people.
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