One of the most common diseases of the digestive system is cattle eymerioz. It is caused by parasites, affecting mostly young animals under the age of one year. The body of young calves is especially susceptible to various intestinal parasites. In this regard, special attention should be paid to this group of infections in order to prevent infection of the young stock in the herd. As practice shows, it is easier to prevent the disease than to eliminate the effects of infection.
General information about pathogens
The most common parasites that cause eumeriosis in calves are yellow-brown and oval-shaped. Their shell is smooth, dual-circuit. But, in total, scientists have identified about 20 varieties of parasites of the disease, of which they are often found:
- oval-shaped, pale yellow parasites;
- light gray smooth parasites of a round form;
- oblong colorless larvae;
- dark brown and pear shaped pests.
It is important to distinguish parasites because, depending on their type, the disease will wear a different incubation period. In addition, each of the larvae has features and varies in size.
The differences of the parasites that cause the disease
The main difference between parasites is how much time passes from the moment they enter the body of cattle until the spores mature. The most "quickly hatching" include oocysts round and elliptical. For their maturation takes from 1 to 3 days.
Oval oocysts can mature for up to 2 weeks, depending on the immunity of the animals. The size of the larvae also affects the time of sporogony, the largest can reach a length of up to 44 microns.
The third, but no less significant difference between the parasites that cause eimeriosis in animals, is manifested in the number of shell contours. Most often, it happens to be two-circuit, but in some cases a three-circuit shell is also encountered. Such parasites are considered more enduring and can cause more harm to the animal.
Geography of distribution and methods of infection
Unfortunately, like most gastrointestinal infections, eymeriosis in cattle is ubiquitous. Parasites infect cattle regardless of climate, breeding region or season. In different areas, the infection rate can vary from 20 to 80%.
Infection, for the most part, are calves aged several months. Usually, this happens when transferring them to pastures. But, even if you do not bring calves to the meadows, the likelihood of catching eymeriosis remains. It can happen if you feed the cattle in the wrong way or keep it in unsanitary conditions.
Despite the fact that calves can become infected at any time of the year, warm months are the most dangerous, during which heavy rainfall falls. This climate is most favorable for the development of Ameriosis.
Immunity of young calves is weak. And this is the reason that in the first months of life, livestock is especially susceptible to various kinds of diseases, many of which are fatal or can cause irreparable damage to the body. Therefore, the calves should be especially carefully monitored in order to prevent the development of diseases such as eymerioz.
Sources of infection can serve as adults, and infected food, and infected drinking water. In addition, the breeding ground for harmful bacteria can be a reservoir for liquid or feed, bedding, on which lies the animal or the room where manure accumulates.
From one animal to another, the larvae can reach the pasture. Especially should be wary of places with abundant moisture content. In order to prevent gastrointestinal diseases, it is recommended to regularly change pastures.
Deceptiveness of immunity
It is worth noting that the immunity against eimeriosis in calves is not produced. This is a common reaction of the body to most gastrointestinal parasites. Therefore, these diseases are considered the most dangerous.
However, in contrast to a number of other infections, in cases of ameriosis in cattle, so-called temporary immunity is produced. This means that after treatment, the animals still have infectious agents that stimulate the immune system against parasites.
Unfortunately, this period is not long, and cows' immunity is produced only to a specific type of virus pathogens. In other words, the probability of re-infection of an individual remains high.
External signs of disease
Eymeriosis in cattle can occur in three forms. The first is a weak course of the disease, which does not manifest in any way. This is the most dangerous form of infection, as calves are carriers of parasites and can transmit them to other individuals. It is not possible to notice the disease and start treatment at this stage.
The acute stage of the disease manifests itself more vividly, when the animals lose their appetite, there is a general weakness, and the body temperature rises. After a few days diarrhea begins, in which you can notice a lot of mucous secretions, often with blood impurities.
The third variant of manifestation of eymeriosis is a chronic course of the disease, in which the symptoms appear gradually and in a weak form. In the chronic stage, the disease is sluggish in nature and easily overlooked if one does not pay enough attention to the state of health of the animals in the herd.
Damage to the body
Most infectious diseases do not pass without a trace. Thus, eymerioz causes serious damage to the body, which in severe cases can be fatal. This is due to the fact that the most serious danger of infection is for young calves, whose immunity cannot cope with the acute course of the disease.
In the body of an infected animal, the greatest damage is caused to the small and large intestines. At autopsy, there is redness, copious mucus with bleeding. Often, along the entire length of the intestine wounds are formed.
But the intestines are not the only area affected by eimeriosis. In severe cases, the infection can give complications to the heart, liver, kidneys and lungs. It is this that ultimately leads to the death of the sick calf.
Diagnosis of the disease
To diagnose a disease, if it is acute, simply by external signs. An experienced veterinarian will easily diagnose based on external symptoms and prescribe appropriate treatment.
But eymerioz is cunning and does not always manifest itself in external symptoms. At the same time, the parasites already live in the body of cattle, harm its body and are transmitted to other individuals in the herd. That is why, at the slightest suspicion, it is necessary to conduct special studies so that a specialist can make a differentiated diagnosis.
Veterinarians can use Fulleborn, Darling, Kotelnikov or Khrenov for setting a clinical diagnosis. Each of these tests is able to identify oocysts, which allows you to make a diagnosis in time and begin treatment.
Remember that when ameriiosis is found in calves, they should be immediately isolated from the rest of the herd and treated. For this, it is recommended to use the following drugs:
- amprolium or its substitutes (10 mg per 1 kg of weight for 10 days);
- toltrazuril (7–10 mg per kg of body weight for 2 days);
- Clopidol (20 mg per 1 kg, the course lasts 4 days, then a 4-day break is taken);
- chemical coccide (from 7 to 20 mg per 1 kg of animal weight, a ten-day course, the medicine is given to the calves every 10 days until they are 4 months old).
Of course, this is only a series of drugs that can be given to livestock during eimeriosis. A more detailed treatment, taking into account the characteristics of the animal and the nature of the course of infection, is prescribed by a veterinarian.
Prophylactic measures to prevent infection in the body
To combat aemeriosis, it is enough to follow the standard recommendations of veterinarians and sanitary control services, aimed at preventing gastrointestinal infections in the herd.
For this, calves brought from other farms are kept in quarantine for at least 1 month. During this period, it is necessary to conduct all tests in order to identify a possible disease and to prevent the spread throughout the herd. During the quarantine of the newly imported individuals should be observed especially carefully.
In addition, it is important to observe sanitary standards on the farm, in animal stalls and regularly change pastures. It is important to give the cows only high-quality food, to monitor the purity of the water and the containers from which they receive food and drink.
If you follow these simple rules, then you can not only prevent eimeriosis on your farm, but also prevent other infections that are no less dangerous to the organism of animals.
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