The disease trichomoniasis cattle, affects the genitals of animals, which leads to serious consequences in cases of both cows and bulls. The causative agents of the disease are parasites, causing miscarriages in infected individuals. The most serious danger is that, despite the treatment, many of the infected animals will no longer be able to give birth. And it causes serious damage to the farm.
Regions of infection and the level of economic damage
Most often trichomoniasis cattle is found in regions with hot climates, such as Africa, Australia, Kazakhstan, the Caucasus. But in the territories of Europe, Asia, Ukraine, America and Russia there are outbreaks of the epidemic. In our country, the first case of infection was registered in 1935.
From the point of view of economic damage, trichomoniasis can be compared with fatal infections, because the result is similar - culling infected individuals. Diseased cows are doomed to miscarriages and further infertility. Bulls have a decrease in performance.
All this leads to the fact that breeders of cattle have to buy new individuals, since the animals that have been ill can not always produce offspring. From a financial point of view, trichomoniasis is one of the most dangerous infections that can lead to a serious decline in profits.
In order to understand what trichomoniasis is, it is necessary to learn more about the parasites themselves that cause this disease in cows and bulls. The causative agents of the disease are parasitic worms that settle in the mucous tissues of the uterus, the penis, or in the folds of the extreme tissues of the genitals.
The worms themselves are shaped like a pear. They can reach a length of 30 microns and 15 microns in width. Parasites move with the help of flagella, three of which are located in the front and one in the back.
It is worth noting that the maximum size of the worms can be reached, being in a favorable atmosphere. If we notice the disease in time and start treatment, then the parasites begin to decrease, flagella fall off, they lose mobility. All this contributes to the speedy recovery of an infected animal.
Ways of infection of cattle
Trichomoniasis can be transmitted from one individual to another in several ways, the most common of which is mating. In addition, the parasites can enter the body of the animal and during artificial insemination, if the semen injected into the cow, was infected. Another area of risk for the transmission of trichomoniasis is non-sterile insemination instruments.
Animals can catch the parasites by contact with the infected litter, through infected manure and from insects, which can be a source of infection for cows and bulls. The main danger is that the parasites are very tenacious, and, at low temperatures, they can be outside the body of the animal for up to twelve days.
As soon as females of parasites get into a favorable environment (the animal's body), they begin to multiply. Within a few days, the first inflammatory processes appear in the cows. The process of reproduction in these parasites is being actively pursued. In addition to the usual longitudinal division, they can multiply by budding and multiple division.
After the parasites enter the body of cows and bulls, they secrete a special substance, the glycolytic enzyme. It affects the impaired development of the fetus in cows and leads to the subsequent loss of unborn calves. In males, parasites also cause several other inflammatory processes that affect its performance.
Without timely treatment, the parasites begin to infect other organs of cattle. So, trichomonosis worms can be found in the stomach of an infected individual.
Immunity to trichomoniasis in cattle
Studies of trichomoniasis in cattle are conducted by a large number of scientists all over the world. Their research aims to create artificial immunity in animals against these parasites. However, to date, none of the attempts have been unsuccessful.
Nature has a different opinion on this. In the natural environment, a number of cases were recorded when the animal was cured of trichomoniasis on its own, without outside intervention or medication. Such "independent" recovery was recorded mainly in cows.
Interestingly, the animals, having had trichomoniasis and infection, have taken the infection on their own, and subsequently received natural immunity to parasites. After complete recovery, no recurrence was observed in these animals.
Common symptoms of the disease
The problem of timely recognition of trichomoniasis is that the first signs of infection appear in each individual in different ways. In some animals, the disease becomes visible in the first days after infection, in others the symptoms appear after a few weeks.
In special cases, the infection may not occur until 4 months, which threatens other animals and may lead to an epidemic on the farm. In order to prevent such a development of events, you should observe the precautions aimed at preventing trichomoniasis.
It is possible to recognize the infection in the early stages by high fever, general nervousness of livestock, loss of appetite and pronounced anxiety. All this is due to the fact that animals experience discomfort due to "foreign" bodies in the body.
Symptoms of cow infection
Due to the fact that trichomoniasis affects the reproductive system of cattle, the symptoms in bulls and cows are manifested in different ways. So, when parasites enter the female's body, the following signs of infection appear:
- the vaginal mucosa swells up;
- after a few weeks, secretions consisting of mucus and flakes appear in the genitals;
- rash appears in the vagina;
- in the later stages, the rash develops to dense nodules;
- blood and purulent discharges appear from the vagina;
- reduced yield.
Most often, it is very easy to recognize trichomoniasis in cows, as it flows in a pronounced, often in an acute form.
Symptoms of parasitic bulls infection
In males, this disease can occur sluggishly, sometimes without causing any concern at all to breeders. That is why bulls are recommended to periodically inspect in order to identify trichomoniasis in a timely manner. When parasites enter their bodies, the following symptoms are observed:
- the penis swells;
- swelling of the foreskin;
- purulent discharge from the urethra;
- ulcers appear in the foreskin area.
Despite the fact that males may have a weak disease, the risk of infection in other animals does not decrease at all. It is in semen bulls that contains the largest number of parasites that are transmitted to females during mating.
An experienced veterinarian can recognize trichomoniasis by external signs, but a number of laboratory tests should be carried out to make an accurate diagnosis. Diagnosis of this infection in animals of different genders will be slightly different. However, in both cases, to identify parasites in the body, it is required to obtain material for research.
In cows, samples are taken from the vagina, thoracic and gastric cavities. If trichomoniasis is suspected in a fertilized cow, then fetal research is also conducted. In the same bulls, lubricant samples are taken from a preputial bag.
Dates and timing of analysis. So, in females it is easiest to identify parasites 8-20 days after infection. Bulls can also be investigated at any time. For an accurate diagnosis, regardless of the sex of the animal, tests are taken 3-4 times with an interval of 10 days.
Ways to combat parasites: general recommendations
It should be understood that the treatment of cattle from trichomoniasis is a complex procedure. If you try to cope with parasites only by the drug method, then you will not see a good result. Along with the recommendations of the veterinarian, care should be taken about food and animal hygiene.
In the fight against trichomoniasis, the most important thing remains the most rapid removal of parasites from the body of the animal. That is what all your actions should be directed to. In addition, it is important to prevent the rest of the herd from becoming infected.
To combat parasites, it is important to maintain cleanliness in the pens. Infected individuals are recommended to be separated from other animals. Cleaning in stalls should be done more often and with the use of disinfectants. This is due to the fact that the parasites, leaving the body, are deposited on the litter.
How to deal with the disease: medical prescriptions
The most effective way to combat trichomoniasis is washing the genital tract of cattle using special solutions. It is this treatment of animals that can lead to their complete recovery.
For washing, use a solution of ammargene, iodine or ichthyol. Often, doctors prescribe to disinfect the soap emulsion K or rivanol. Washing is recommended for 2-3 days with an interval of 5 days. The number of repetitions depends on the condition of the animals.
In addition to washing, infected individuals are recommended to give prozerin injections every other day. The course of treatment is 6 days. Another effective drug in the fight against trichomoniasis is bioquinol. It is injected intramuscularly bulls every other day. In total, there are six such injections, after which the animal is allowed to rest.
Despite the developed treatment of cattle from trichomoniasis, parasites can cause irreparable harm to the animal, resulting in individuals lose their reproductive ability. This leads to large economic losses, reduction of the herd and a number of problems associated with the purchase of new livestock.
The most effective method of combating infection has been and remains the implementation of preventive measures aimed at preventing animals from becoming infected.
As for trichomoniasis, in order to combat parasites on modern farms, only artificial insemination of cows with sperm of uninfected bulls is used. This approach can significantly reduce the risk of spreading the disease, even if animals become infected with parasites from outside.
Do not forget about hygiene. Stalls in which sick animals were kept should be thoroughly disinfected. For these purposes it is recommended to use solutions of creolin, soda ash or caustic soda.
Treatment for any disease is prescribed only by a veterinarian - this is an immutable rule, the violation of which can lead to worse consequences. Never treat animals without a specialist prescription. However, you can, by following these tips, reduce the likelihood of contracting trichomoniasis in your herd:
- New individuals should be kept separately, prior to testing for trichomoniasis;
- infected cows are kept separate from the main herd during the whole treatment;
- sick bulls, in most cases, are subject to slaughter;
- to use the semen of cured bulls, if there is such a need, it is possible only after a fivefold study;
- In the process of artificial insemination, it is important to comply with all sanitary and hygienic standards.
Remember that trichomoniasis spreads very quickly, so timely detection of the disease will reduce the risk of an epidemic and increase the likelihood of complete recovery.
It is important to know
There are several points that all cattle breeders should be aware of. If at least one infected individual is found, then the entire herd should be examined. In the case of trichomoniasis, even one infected cow is enough to recognize the farm as unfavorable.
Infected individuals are forbidden to be transported until doctors confirm their full recovery. In addition, the supply of a new livestock to the quarantine farm is prohibited until the site is deemed safe. The decision to remove the quarantine is made only if the animal tests are "clean" three times in a row.
In our article we tried to answer all questions related to trichomoniasis of cattle. We hope that it was useful to you.
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