At the moment, in our country only small outbreaks of cattle emkar infection are periodically recorded. For more than a hundred years, it has been considered a very dangerous infectious disease to which predominantly cows are exposed. But if time does not reveal the disease and do not take appropriate measures, it will cause serious damage even to a very powerful animal husbandry.
Causes and conditions of the disease
The second name of the disease is emphysematous carbuncle. The main pathogen in cows is considered an active anaerobic bacillus (Clostridium chauvoei). This microorganism in the course of activity is able to generate a lot of disputes and remain in a viable state for many years.
The walking and grazing areas of the herd are mainly infected through manure and excretion of diseased animals. The stick is successfully preserved both in dry ground and in marshland. But the most dangerous and active is the soil contaminated from a dead animal. The concentration of the pathogen in this place is extremely high, so all the dead cows should be burned or disposed of at special enterprises.
In a sleeping state, the disputes of cattle emkar can persist in the open ground for years, low temperatures do not affect them. Although under direct sunlight spores of microorganisms die within a day, and continuous boiling kills them within 2 hours. The temperature of 120-150ºC sticks stand up to half an hour.
But most quickly microorganisms die from disinfectants. Thus, the solution of mercuric chloride kills pests in 10 minutes, and they withstand a formaldehyde attack for no more than 15 minutes.
Age of diseased animals
Although the carbuncle is found in all ungulates, most often cows are sick with emkar. The first at risk are young, well-fed, strong animals aged up to 3-4 years. The fact is that the wand feeds on glycogen, and most of all glycogen is concentrated in the muscles of the young.
The old herd of livestock is less susceptible to the disease, and as for the calves, there is nothing to fear when feeding them with the colostrum of vaccinated or recovered cows with a stable immune system.
It has been observed that disease outbreaks usually occur during the drought season. The grass grows poorly, and they are forced to collect food directly from the ground, capturing the pathogen spores from the soil.
The cause of the disease in the winter period of sludge, mainly, are food collected in the contaminated area, as well as direct contact with infected animals.
Meat and milk of infected cows are strictly prohibited to use both for food and for technical purposes. Everything must be disposed of, according to the Soviet decree "On the fight against emphysematous carbuncle" dated 10.10.1982.
Diagnosis and characteristics of the disease
Scientists attribute emcar to stationary infections. In other words, after the detection of the outbreak, the wand is able to remain in places of contact with the herd for quite a long time.
Until the end of the XIX century, the disease was diagnosed as a form of anthrax. Accordingly, struggled with the infection as well. In 1875, the carbuncle stick was identified by Professor Otto von Bolinger. As a specialist in the field of veterinary medicine, he made a detailed description of it.
10 years later, a number of other scientists, including Russian ones, were confirmed by Bolinger's research. As a result, a vaccine against emkar was born. At that time, a solution based on aluminum hydroxide was taken. And although the effectiveness of the drug against the carbuncle left much to be desired, this measure allowed the main herd to be vaccinated and to avoid the development of an epidemic.
Ways of infection in the body
Penetrating through the gastrointestinal tract of a cow, the infection enters the blood and accumulates in the muscles, whose tissues are rich in glycogen. Often - this is the neck, hips, submandibular region, sternum.
The nutrient glycogen environment gives an impetus to the active reproduction of microorganisms and, as a result, they release into the blood a mass of dangerous toxins. They are the true cause of a sharp decrease in the body’s immunity and the destruction of blood vessels. They cause swelling, carbuncles and in the final phase - muscle necrosis.
In most cases, the time of incubation of this disease in cows ranges from 10 hours to 2 days.
The symptomatology of the disease is as follows: sharply and seemingly unreasonably, the temperature of the animal "takes off" to 41-42 degrees. Reaching this limit, it stabilizes and gets off heavily. During the disease in animals, appetite decreases, apathy sets in, and most importantly, the ruminant reflex disappears.
The cow may begin to limp or drag the legs, sometimes the joints stop bending. Dense tumors appear at the localization points of the infection - these are the same carbuncles. At first they are hot and very painful, but gradually the heat subsides. In the end, they cool down and almost completely lose their sensitivity.
All lymph nodes near the outbreak are also enlarged. The animal's pulse weakens and the breathing rhythm is lost, and shortness of breath appears.
The decrease in temperature in cows and sensitivity in the area of carbuncles is caused by the death of living tissue. The carbuncle darkens, and if you make a cut a liquid appears with a characteristic brown color and foam.
If you press on the tumor, then you can hear a kind of crunch. It is because of this particular disease is also called a noisy carbuncle. This effect is caused by a large number of air bubbles, which, when pressed, burst and tear the fabric.
If the disease is started, the cows no longer rise. There is a clear shortness of breath, and foam appears around the nostrils and mouth. In this case, the animals can no longer be saved, most often they are put to sleep and disposed of.
It is impossible to neglect the vaccination, if the herd was not vaccinated, then the mass mortality of cattle from emphysematous carbuncle can begin as early as a day after the onset of the first symptoms of the disease.
Forms of the disease
In thin and weak animals, carbuncles may not appear at all. In this case, the disease will be indicated only by lack of appetite, fever and apathy. These features often lead to the formulation of erroneous diagnoses. Therefore, at the first suspicion of a disease, you should immediately invite a veterinarian, otherwise the whole herd may be infected.
There is also an atypical form of the disease. It does not cause death and is accompanied only by general depression and muscle pain. There are no carbuncles here either. This form is usually seen in older cows. With early diagnosis of the disease, the animal can be completely cured within 2 to 5 days.
The so-called septic form of emkar is extremely rare and only in young animals under 12 weeks of age. The disease proceeds rapidly, without carbuncles, but with a strong fever. The calf can die in a day.
The main thing - do not confuse the disease
Diagnosis of the disease is carried out taking into account a number of factors. This includes seasonality, age, physical condition of the cattle, as well as diet and conditions of detention.
To immediately eliminate anthrax, the veterinarian takes samples of tissue from carbuncles. In anthrax, carbuncles do not crackle, but only laboratory tests can provide complete confidence.
The process of palpation and selection of tests from carbuncles causes severe pain in an animal, and only a professional should do this. In addition, in no case should the carcasses of dead cows be cut directly on the farm or pasture. The carcass should simply be burned, and the place of its death should be treated with powerful antiseptics, or at least a fire should be kindled there.
First of all, remember that finding an emkar in a cow is not a sentence. Now there are effective ways to treat cattle from this disease. As for prevention, then if you vaccinate a herd on time and farm the land, diseases can be avoided altogether.
Basic drugs for treatment
It is necessary to fight the disease in a complex. The main weapons are antibiotics. But along with them, subcutaneous disinfecting injections and washing of carbuncles with solutions are actively used. Of the line of antibiotics in the treatment of the disease most often used the following medications:
From the new generation of drugs, antibiotics of the cephalosporin direction stand out, they have a rather high efficiency, but they are significantly more expensive than traditional ones. All injections are given intramuscularly.
Areas with a clear tissue lesion are cut off with disinfectant solutions, in particular, here are used:
- Lysol - 5% solution;
- hydrogen peroxide - a solution of 2%;
- carboxylic acid - 4% solution;
- potassium permanganate - a solution of 0.1%.
Disinfectant injections are injected directly into the tumor itself. Chipping around the perimeter of the carbuncle does not give the desired result and is practically useless. If the carbuncle is opened and fluid is oozing out of it, then the ulcers should be regularly cleaned with the same solutions of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide.
When quarantine is announced
Quarantine is declared in the event that an infected farm is subject to the decree of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation No. 476, dated 12.19.2011. The governor of the region has the right to declare a quarantine zone with the filing of the chief sanitary doctor of the region. In other words, the local district administration has no authority to declare quarantine.
This procedure involves a number of serious measures. At the time of quarantine, diseased cows should be completely isolated from the main herd. And to place the animals laid in different buildings. All remaining cattle, in which laboratory tests have not revealed any signs of disease, are vaccinated without fail.
Until the quarantine is closed, even healthy cows cannot be sent for slaughter, nor can their milk be used as food. If a case is detected, it means that the carcasses are burned along with the remnants of feed and manure.
Subtleties of processing contaminated premises
All the premises of the barn, as well as the surrounding areas are treated with 4% formaldehyde solution or bleach solution at least 2-3 times. Prepare them immediately before use.
The barn disinfection process is also regulated. Everything is processed: the barn itself, the tool, the stall. The procedure is repeated three times in a row at intervals of an hour. Workers must wear special suits and respirators.
Dung pits and other similar places around the barns are plentifully poured with dry bleach powder. If a fire cannot be made at the place of death of a cow, it is burned with a blowtorch or a gas torch. After that, pour plenty of bleach solution. Open ground is dug up and mixed with bleach on a bayonet spade.
Overalls and tools that were used during quarantine work are either burned or soaked for at least three hours in a formaldehyde solution. Provided that all the required measures are carried out, the quarantine can be declared closed only two weeks after the recovery or death of the cows.
Vaccinations as the best way to fight disease
Theoretically recovered cattle must have a strong immunity to the disease. But in conditions of herd keeping and on large livestock farms, the risk of contamination of livestock remains. Therefore, the instruction prescribes to vaccinate the herd before the start of the season, that is, in spring and autumn.
Inoculate the entire herd, regardless of weight and age. If the cattle was castrated or they cut off the horns, then the vaccine should be done a week later. Cows after calving can be vaccinated after 10 days. Pregnant women cannot be vaccinated for a month before calving.
Vaccination material should be purchased only in verified locations. Vaccines of this direction have a limited shelf life, so it should be checked first. After that, the availability and, most importantly, the authenticity of the quality certificate for solutions is checked.
General preventive measures
When purchasing new livestock animals can be allowed into the herd only after a month of quarantine of newcomers in a separate stall. At this time, the newly arrived cows are not in contact with the main herd.
After the flock has been transferred to summer pastures, the main farm should be disinfected. Processing is carried out twice: immediately after the pasture and before the arrival of the herd from the summer grounds.
It is extremely undesirable to use pastures or to harvest feed for cows near cattle cemeteries or swamps. If this condition is impossible to fulfill, then in order to avoid an outbreak of the disease, it is necessary to strictly observe the schedule of vaccinations as closely as possible and closely monitor the condition of the animals.
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