The deadly plague of cattle is an island viral pathology common among ruminants. It is characterized by the inflammatory process of the mucous membranes, fever. The disease spreads very quickly and is usually fatal. All animals die in the lesion. Most often cattle suffer from this disease.
History of the disease
The plague of cattle first appeared many centuries ago. After many centuries, it was found that it is contagious and dangerous to animals. This fact was confirmed at the end of the 19th century, and scientists discovered the causative agent of pathology in the early 1900s.
Today, herders in Australia, North and South America, and European countries may not survive. Large horned animals will not pick up the disease, since they are not registered in these territories, which cannot be said of the Middle East, Africa and Asia. Here the disease is rampant to this day and is destroying cattle.
At the end of the 20th century, a large number of animals died from this disease in India and West Africa. A few decades ago, the situation was favorable in Sri Lanka, but today the disease has reappeared on the territory of this state.
In the Russian Federation, animal plague has not manifested itself since 1928. This was facilitated by the work of scientists, veterinarians and serious measures that were taken by the Soviet government.
About the causative agent of the disease
Pathology occurs under the influence of an RNA-containing virus, which can be of several sizes and shapes. Scientists have established small, large, oval and filamentous particles. The virus is located muscles, blood, secretions, lymph nodes of the animal.
The causative agent of the disease is poorly resistant in the environment and is subject to the influence of chemical and physical substances. If the air temperature is raised to 60 degrees, it will die after a couple of minutes. At 24-26 degrees, the virus lives 3-4 days. The most favorable is the subzero temperature. So, at -20 degrees the pathogen can persist up to six months. In a lyophilized form (drying when frozen), he lives for more than 5 years, if the temperature is 18-20 degrees below zero.
The causative agent of the disease is poorly resistant to rotting. In the corpse of an animal, it dies after 1-1.5 days, but it is stored in the bone marrow for up to a month. The viability of the pathogen in manure a maximum of 1.5 days, and in pasture - 3 days.
Disinfection is carried out using formaldehyde, sodium hypochlorite, bleach. These funds eliminate the pathogen in a few minutes.
Some time ago, a plague of small-breeding animals appeared, the causative agent of which was a virus related to an RNA-containing one.
The source of the pathogen is infected and ill representatives. They secrete the virus along with saliva, blood, mucus from the nose, feces, urine. Allocations occur 1-3 months. They also appear during the plague incubation period. The disease is easily spread through the skin, meat, horns, animal hair.
Cattle can catch the disease in the natural habitat. It occurs through the mucous membranes or gastrointestinal tract. It is forbidden to keep injured and healthy individuals together, because infection will occur almost instantly. Animals should be separated by a ditch, a wall should be erected between them, or kept at least 6 meters away. This will protect livestock from transmission of the virus.
The disease spreads rapidly throughout the territory, manifests itself both in the warm and in the cold season. In the affected area, mortality is almost 100%. In remote areas, it can be from 5 to 20%.
The plague virus instantly enters the bloodstream of livestock and begins its destructive activity. It spreads in the mucous membrane of the stomach, bone marrow, lymph nodes. As a result, a large number of hemorrhages are observed, the activity of the internal organs of animals is disturbed.
The shell of the alimentary tract of the animal becomes inflamed and ulcers form on it. The intestinal epithelium becomes very loose, the immune system suffers greatly. She quickly depressed, and then ceases to function.
Due to extensive damage to the stomach and intestines, animals suffer from diarrhea, their digestion is disturbed. Therefore, the affected individuals begin to lose weight, they develop dehydration. Sick cattle die due to heart failure and circulatory problems.
Symptoms of the disease
The plague of cattle is characterized by a temperature of up to 42 C. The animal is constantly reeling, his appetite decreases, there is constant thirst. Cows start to give less milk. After 2-3 days, foci of hypertension appear on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, after which small gray spots are formed. The mucous eye is very red, the eyelids are strongly swollen. There were cases when the cornea began to grow turbid.
The first few days the sick animals behave excitedly, they do not refuse food. But then the condition of the livestock deteriorates:
- breathing becomes more frequent;
- muscle tone is lost;
- appetite disappears;
- there is a strong weakness, oppression.
First, there is a very painful defecation (fecal discharge), and then the animal cannot control it at all. The mucosa of the rectum becomes dark red. Individuals begin to lose weight and quickly fade away. Their eyes sink, the temperature becomes below normal. Pregnant animals miscarry. Cattle die 1-1.5 weeks after the onset of the disease.
Methods for diagnosing dangerous pathology
The diagnosis is confirmed by laboratory diagnostic results. It is carried out by specialized veterinary laboratories and research institutes. Specialists identify the virus itself, its antigen and specific antibodies, as well as monitor the virus-specific tissue damage.
Parts of the spleen, lymph nodes, and the blood of animals that were eliminated after the onset of signs of disease are sent to the laboratory. In this case, the material must be taken a maximum of 6 hours after the death of the animal. It is placed in a sterile sealed package, which is placed in a thermos with ice.
A serological blood test is also required. It must be taken immediately after the onset of symptoms. After 1.5-2 weeks, the test must be tested again to confirm the disease.
How not to confuse the disease
It is important not to confuse the plague with other diseases. It is similar to several pathologies:
- malignant catarrhal fever;
- foot and mouth disease;
- viral diarrhea;
For this you need to understand the manifestations of the above diseases. Thus, catarrhal fever is characterized by damage to the eyes. The disease is slower than the plague. Foot and mouth disease has a very high temperature. A few days after infection, aphas, fluid bubbles, form on the tongue and in the nasal passages of the livestock. At first it is transparent, but after a while it begins to grow turbid.
Viral diarrhea is characterized by an increase in the body temperature of the animal to 42 degrees and prolonged bowel disorder. From the nasal cavity and eyes appear purulent discharge with a fetid odor. When pasteurellosis is observed mucus from the nose and eyes, as well as diarrhea with blood clots.
Indications of pathoanatomical examination
The classic form of the disease manifests itself as inflammatory lesions and abnormalities in the vascular tissues. Often strips of bruises appear on the thighs of animals. Severe damage to the gastrointestinal tract:
- on the mucous membrane is formed;
- intestines swelling and increasing;
- bruises appear on it;
- mesenteric lymph nodes increase.
Under the influence of the disease, other organs also undergo major changes. Hemorrhages appear on the trachea and bronchi, the lungs are swollen, the liver becomes flabby and increases in size. Regional lymph nodes greatly inflamed and also increase. Only the spleen remains unchanged.
Control measures in identifying the disease
According to veterinary legislation, the plague of cattle is not treated. Sick animals do not receive any therapy. They are immediately eliminated, and the corpses are cremated. After detection of the disease, the entire settlement is closed for quarantine. It is strictly forbidden to import and export any animals, procure skin and any products, kill for meat. It is forbidden to drive cars and the movement of residents.
The cattle is a day in the stall, it is not taken out on pasture. Veterinarians measure temperature every day. If individuals with elevated temperature are identified, they are isolated. If the temperature does not go astray, in 2-3 days the animal is eliminated, and the corpse is burned. Thorough disinfection is carried out at least once a day.
All animals must be vaccinated without fail, and after 1.5 weeks they begin to be driven out to pasture, where they are grazed by separate groups. The area around pastures is also cleaned and disinfected.
Quarantine withdrawal rules
Quarantine is allowed to remove only 3 weeks after the last diseased animal is eliminated. A biological test is mandatory. For this, several healthy calves are placed in the room, which have not been vaccinated against the plague. Veterinarians monitor cattle for a month. If these individuals do not become ill in this period, then it is allowed to start other animals.
Within six months, the cattle can be moved from quarantine only for liquidation. Susceptible animals are required to be vaccinated before being placed in health centers. After that, they are isolated for 2 weeks. Veterinarians vaccinate all cows at an unfavorable location. Vaccinations put annually for 3 years.
How to immunize
There are cases when animals are still cured of the disease. In this case, they earn immunity for more than 5 years. The offspring also receives immunity from the mother during the first 1-1.5 days after birth.
It is worth noting that passive immunization (the introduction of ready-made antibodies) provides livestock protection for only 2 weeks. It is used when animals are in danger not for long. For example, during their transportation.
Active immunization is carried out with live and inactivated vaccines. So, in Russia, dry culture vaccine is applied. It activates the production of specific antibodies, which are transmitted to young animals and protect them in the first few months after birth.
After the introduction of the vaccine in livestock may swollen injection site. The size of the swelling does not exceed a chicken egg. In this case, no veterinary intervention is required, since everything will pass by itself after a while.
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