A group of diseases called cattle clostridiosis occurs when bacteria of the genus Clostridium enter the body of an animal. Infection refers to the anaerobic group. These microbes can cause great damage to the entire body of a cow. Rod-shaped elements can get inside and cause damage to the intestinal tract, connective and muscle tissues, the nervous system and respiratory tract. Parasites are capable of being in the body of an animal or a human for a long time, forming new foci of infection.
Where do these bacteria come from
The reasons for the penetration of microbes into the body of a cow can be:
- substandard feed;
- contaminated drinking water and soil;
- unsanitary conditions of cattle.
The infection is transmitted mainly by the fecal-oral route.
Clostridium - bacteria from among pathogens. They are rod-shaped with rounded ends, gram-colored. These bacteria exhibit instability to oxygen and are capable of forming spores when ingested by an animal or a human. The most comfortable conditions for the reproduction of parasites is a humid environment with an average temperature of 35 degrees and the absence of oxygen. The incubation period of pathogenic bacteria is 4–20 hours.
How is the infectious process
The infection process in clostridiosis can occur in two directions:
- toxic effect. It occurs most frequently, accompanied by the formation of toxic substances in the animal's body, and can lead to a complete damage to the nervous system, as well as tissues. In practice, such a disease is often fatal.
- mechanical damage is much less common and is not able to have such a strong impact.
The effect of pathogenic bacteria on the body of cattle can cause the emergence of various diseases. The first symptoms are deterioration in the general condition of the animal, refusal to eat and water, diarrhea. Diseases are accompanied by a sharp increase and decrease in temperature, vomiting, weakness, convulsions appear, fever and paralysis develops. At this time, the animal can lose weight greatly, lose a lot of strength, its coordination and breathing rhythm are disturbed, and its heartbeat quickens. The most common diseases that occur when clostridia are ingested into a cow are:
- enterotoxemia is a disease in which toxins from the intestine penetrate into the nervous system and cause its defeat;
- tetanus - an acute infectious disease, accompanied by muscle contractions and causing cramps;
- botulism - paralysis of the jaw, tongue, lips, and pharynx of the animal.
Diagnosis of the disease
In the USSR, clostrodiosis was not given special attention. In a difficult economic situation, it was practically impossible to diagnose the problem of poor health of a cow or a sheep - there was no special equipment yet. And since the infectious process itself goes unnoticed, even veterinarians could not identify clostridioses in the early stages.
When signs of ill health were found in the animal, they simply increased the dose of feed antibiotics. Such methods of treatment led only to the gradual addiction of microorganisms to the drug.
Today, the diagnosis of clostridia cows do in the laboratory. Specialists carry out an integrated approach to the identification of toxins in the intestines of the animal. To do this, collect the necessary biomaterial - swabs, scrapings from the damaged walls of organs.
How can I help you
A sick animal must be isolated from the rest of the population. The infection that one cow picked up from the herd can be transmitted to others.
Indoors, where there will be a sick cow, create comfortable conditions. It is worth paying attention to the presence of a warm litter and the absence of drafts. Lighting should not be bright, so as not to annoy the animal.
During the course of the disease in the stall must have clean drinking water. It is recommended to cleanse the body of the cow with an enema.
During the first day it is necessary to limit meals. Then feed the animal with nutritious foods that are easily digested. This is mainly fresh green fodder - alfalfa, clover, young grass, legumes.
Drug treatment of clostridiosis is carried out by intramuscular injection of ampicillin at the rate of 20 mg / kg or metronidazole 13 mg / kg. In any case, when symptoms of the disease are detected in a cow, it is necessary to seek help from a veterinarian.
Save the flock from the disease
After recovery, the animal is able to fight the remaining small amounts of bacteria in the body. If the immune system is strong enough, there is a chance of complete recovery.
To prevent the appearance of clostridia and other bacteria, it is recommended to perform the following activities:
- to observe hygienic rules and sanitary standards when keeping cattle;
- conduct periodic disinfection of premises;
- feed only high-quality food;
- conduct timely vaccination of livestock;
- organize herding on pastures that are not cattle cemeteries;
- clean the hooves regularly.
In accordance with the norms of keeping cattle, the owners of farms and farms on which centers of occurrence of clostridiosis were discovered are prohibited from taking cattle out of their own territory for a fixed period of time.
Do not let the young ones get sick
A particularly vulnerable category to infectious diseases are pregnant cows and young stock due to weakened immunity. It is necessary to pay special attention to the content of the breeding stock, because the quality and quantity of the offspring of your farm depends on it.
Pathological changes that entail clostridioses are associated with discoloration of the skin. They have a bluish tint. Because of the abundant gas formation, the corpse is swollen, the skeleton's structure is broken, the bones are fragile, and when pressed, they crunch. Damage to muscle tissue and gastrointestinal tract, liver dystrophy, swollen lungs, and an increase in the brain are observed.
Unfortunately, acute infectious diseases are not uncommon among cows, sheep, goats. Many farmers, especially inexperienced, faced with the diseases of their pets, panic and do not know how to be.
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