A disease such as psoroptosis in cattle is known to many owners of cows and other animals. Severe itching and hair loss causes a lot of torment. The carrier of the disease is ticks, which once hitting the skin, multiply rapidly. These insects spread other diseases dangerous for animals and humans. Therefore, it will be useful to know all the preventive measures, to clearly understand what to do when a tick bite and how to pull it out.
Symptom of the disease: milk is reddish and bitter
Blood-sucking insects are very unpleasant creatures of nature, because by their actions they endure diseases dangerous for animals and humans. A tick bite can lead to such serious diseases of the cow as:
- foot and mouth disease;
The signs of the latter are the depressed state of the animal, the rise in body temperature to 42 degrees, the cow stops eating, the process of “chewing gum” stops. Despite the fact that the incubation period lasts up to three weeks, on the second day the urine of the cow may become pink in color, and a little later it will become completely red. The same thing happens with milk, it becomes reddish. In addition, milk is made bitter. All these signs indicate that a tick bitten a cow.
If time does not recognize the disease in an animal and does not provide assistance, then it will die. After all, very quickly under the action of pathogens of the disease, parasitic on red blood cells, the liver is disturbed. A pregnant cow can have a miscarriage.
Life depends on quick help.
The diagnosis of the disease can be accurately determined only in the laboratory by taking a blood test from a cow. And it is important to start treatment with pyrostope drugs as soon as possible. The frivolous attitude of the owners leads to the fact that, according to statistics, more than half of the cows who become ill with piroplasmidosis die.
No less dangerous for animals and humans encephalitis, which can be sick from the bite of ixodic tick. Another method of infection is to use unboiled milk from a sick cow.
In the first case, there should be a certain time of year (spring, summer, autumn), when insects are active. And, of course, it is dangerous to be in the place where ticks live - these are natural zones of forests, steppes, and fields. A virus caught in the blood of a cow affects the nervous system of a living organism. A bitten person, even if he infected himself (and not all ticks are infected with encephalitis), is not dangerous for other people. However, the life of the victim is at risk, as the virus affects the brain and spinal cord.
The main weapon is tweezers.
Removal of the parasite that has adhered to the skin is a very important process. No animal can get rid of the insect itself. Help will be provided only by a person who knows how to pull the tick properly so as not to harm even more. After all, if the tick head remains inside, inflammation will begin and surgical intervention may be necessary to remove it.
Note that tick saliva has an analgesic effect, so the bite is painless. The parasite selects areas with more delicate skin.
For the removal of the insect, curved tweezers will be suitable, with which the tick is captured as close as possible to the point of penetration. Then rotate in both directions, slightly pulling up. Usually, after a few turns, he loosens his grip and, together with the proboscis, turns into the outside.
Do not deprive the parasite of air
In addition to the usual tweezers, you can remove the tick from a cow with a special hook, similar to a curved fork with two teeth. The principle of operation is the same: the capture teeth and twisting in both directions. After removal, the wound should be smeared with alcohol or brilliant green.
However, it happens that the parasite has to be pulled out right in the field, when there are no suitable tools at hand. Try using a regular thread, which in an emergency can be pulled out of clothes. But she must be rude. After making a loop, throw it over the tick, tighten it and start to wobble one way and the other, pulling the loop up.
Categorically you can not try to pull the tick from a cow, blocking its access to air with oil or petroleum jelly. A blockage of respiration will cause the parasite to burp out of the sucked blood back into the wound, which increases the risk of infection.
Types of ticks
Modern scientists described almost 55 thousand different types of ticks. Their value ranges from 0.2 to 5 mm. For fixing on the body of an animal or human, they use an end segment, which is equipped with suckers and claws. And the introduction into the body by using the chelate appendages. They prick and cut the skin tissue.
In addition to ixodic encephalitis mites, scabby, rat and subcutaneous mites are dangerous. They are common, especially in dogs and cats. Their names speak for themselves. The first causes scabies and even demodicosis. From the second suffer mainly rats. The third penetrates deep into the skin, delivering severe torment from intolerable itching.
Insects of any of the described species can attack cattle. From psoroptes cattle, which carry mites, not one cow suffers, but entire herds. Tell us more about the symptoms and treatment of this disease.
Wool falls out
The causative agent of psoroptosis are the so-called skin insects. A characteristic feature of the appearance of the parasite is a solid body - the chest is not separated from the head and abdomen. The size of the tick is not more than 0.8 mm and it is difficult to notice it in a cow, although it does not have too long hair. Insect feeds on lymph.
If the animal has thickened folds on the skin and it is overcome by itching, it means that the tick bit the cow and, perhaps, she got sick with psorioptosis. Signs of scabies appear 10-14 days after the parasite has hit the animal's skin. As the disease progresses, the temperature rises, small swellings that look like nodules form. After some time they turn into bubbles and burst, spilling the internal liquid. Starts hair loss.
Outbreaks of the disease are noted in winter and autumn. At this time, the diagnosis is easy to make, since the diseased neck, back and sacrum of the cow are clearly visible. In the summer, chronic scabies are observed when the itch does not disturb the animal too much.
Treat baths and aerosols
What to do and how to help a sick cow? The treatment of psoroptosis is very difficult and long-term, as scabies mites hide in the folds of the skin and continue to multiply.
Before you begin to act, you must contact the veterinary clinic for testing. Only by examining the skin scraping can an accurate diagnosis be made and the correct treatment to which the cow should be prepared can be applied. To do this, all affected areas are cleaned, softening and removing dried crusts from bursting bubbles. Ideally, wool is cut around. For example, use "Neosthomazan" or "Tsidrin". When bathing use swimming pools with swimming channels.
Calloid sulfur is widely used to treat cows and cattle. It happens in the form of suspension or dust. From intramuscular drugs suitable "Ivermek." Apply and aerosols, for example, "Psoroptol".
Another type of scabies
Another common and unpleasant disease is chorioptosis in cattle. Its pathogens are very small mites with sizes ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 mm. Once on the cow's body, insects are grouped on the thighs on the inside, at the root of the tail, and in the bend of the gang joint.
In order to properly diagnose, clinical studies of skin scrapings are needed. For this purpose, kerosene is used in which the skin sample taken is dissolved, and then examined under a microscope.
Chorioptosis of cattle is especially common among young animals, and they carry it very hard. Horses and cows suffer from severe itching. On the skin are formed lesions similar to eczema, thick crusts and bald spots appear.
Bathing sick animals in baths using special anti-scouring agents is used for treatment. It is necessary to de-harass the rooms where cows are kept. And the newly arrived cattle are released into the general herd only after quarantine.
In the spring and summer, ticks that are in the active period of life can carry a disease such as demodicosis. Especially comfortable demodexes feel when the heat is above 30 degrees. Once on the animal's fur, the parasite makes its way to the skin, hides in the sebaceous gland and begins to multiply. Very quickly, huge colonies of three or four thousand insects are formed.
The signs of the disease are similar to psoroptosis - the same nodules on the skin and the fluid secreted from them. And as the final - hair loss. Also affected are the head, back, chest and shoulder blades. The only difference is that when demodicosis is not observed redness of the skin, and the cow does not feel an itch. This diagnosis is not put on the eye, it can only be confirmed by conducting special tests in laboratory conditions.
Treatment of a cow depends on the age and extent of the disease. During preparation for treatment, the crust formed is softened with soap and creolin. Apply sprays drug "Sevin" and injected with a syringe under the skin "Ivermectin". If the disease is in its initial stage, the skin treatment is made with "Akrodex" or other aerosols.
Scabby itself will not work
Treatment of any disease caused by ticks, be sure to complete. On the recovery of the cow testify passed tests, in which there will be no parasites. Scabies do not pass by themselves and do not heal quickly. If you interrupt the process, the mites will adapt to the drugs used. Then the disease will become chronic.
In conclusion, some tips:
- after removing the tick, place it in a jar and take it to a hospital to determine if it is a carrier of the disease;
- if, when pulling out the parasite, the head broke off and remained in the body, heat the pin and try to extract the insect remains with it;
- Remember to wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water after removing the tick and treating the wound.
To avoid contamination of the cow with skin diseases that carry ticks, it is necessary to inspect all animals entering the farm. Even if outwardly the cow looks healthy, it may already be infected. Therefore, the arrived cattle must be kept in quarantine for up to four weeks. Beginners are placed in a separate room, and before being released into the general herd, they are treated with a solution of the “Cypermethrin” preparation.
With the onset of the warm season and increasing air temperature, regularly inspect animals for the presence of ticks. Separate suspicious cows immediately. Do not forget to thoroughly decontaminate the premises, disinfect the tools and clothing of personnel.
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