The disease of cattle anaplasmosis in our days rarely leads to the death of cows, - with timely treatment, they survive. However, the disease can seriously, sometimes irreparably, harm the economy. Sick animals lose weight, cows stop giving milk. Recovery is usually very slow. During this time, the farmer loses serious money, and sometimes livestock. To recognize anaplasmosis as early as possible, you need to know everything about it. Then the loss in the economy can be minimized or even prevented.
What is anaplasmosis: pathogens and vectors
Anaplasmosis is a transmissible disease, that is, a carrier is needed to transmit the disease. The latter are most often:
- biting beetles;
- sheep bloodsucker.
In addition, infection of an animal with anaplasmosis is possible through instruments contaminated with the blood of a sick individual.
The causative agent of the disease - the parasite Anaplasma marginale refers to rickettsiae - a kind of intracellular bacteria. He lives in the blood of a sick animal, "sucking" on red blood cells. Sometimes, when analyzed, it is detected in platelets or leukocytes.
For a long time, it was believed that anaplasmosis, hemobartenellosis and other similar animal diseases cause unicellular groups of Protozoa that live in humid conditions. But later studies have refuted this belief. It turned out that anaplasm does not have a nucleus and organelles that are typical for single-celled cells, therefore, this pathogen is now classified as a prokaryote.
Zones and conditions for the spread of infection
Anaplasmosis is not news for livestock breeders. It is found both in Russia and in nearby countries: Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine. The disease harms cows and other cattle in the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia, in Kazakhstan, Central Asia, in the Lower Volga region, and in other regions. By the way, not only domestic animals are sick, but also wild animals - elks, buffaloes, and deer. The disease is focal in nature.
Outbreaks of anaplasmosis in cows occur in the warm season, when insect carriers of the parasite are active. However, the disease can make itself felt in the cold, since the incubation period is from 6 to 70 days. With improper or insufficiently thorough treatment of anaplasmosis, poor living conditions of the animal, the parasite can lie low. Then the disease will break out at any time of the year, even in winter. Therefore, it is extremely important to keep the livestock clean, in time to carry out sanitary, veterinary measures.
Features of the parasite
Anaplasms form colonies, multiplying by budding or division. Usually, 1-2 anaplasmas live in one erythrocyte, sometimes 3-4. But there are cases when, in a severe course of the disease in an animal, the cell becomes 60-80% full of parasites. Infection of new cells in cows occurs through the transfer of the parasite's reticular bodies, which are able to penetrate through the cell membrane. By themselves, they do not carry the infection, but are a reproductive "raw material" for the formation of new Anaplasm.
When analyzing the blood of an animal - smears according to Romanovsky - the parasite is visible in the form of rounded objects of dark color, ranging in size from 0.2 to 2.2 micrometers. Usually located on the edge of the host cell, but sometimes it can move inwards.
In insect carriers of anaplasma live in the intestines. They are transmitted in two ways. The first: transovarial - transmission of infection to future offspring (that is, for example, an infected tick lays eggs that already contain the parasite). The second is transphasic: the pathogen "roams" in the insect at all stages of its development.
Signs of disease in livestock
Anaplasma causes a disturbance of many processes in the body of the cow. Predominantly exchangeable and redox. They worsen the transfer of oxygen, because it affects the red blood cells. The affected animal develops anemia, rarely hemoglobinuria (the presence of hemoglobin in the urine due to the breakdown of red blood cells) occurs.
The body temperature in the disease rises to 41 degrees and above, the mucous membranes of the animal turn pale, sometimes yellowness appears. It becomes bad or the appetite disappears altogether. After 4-6 days, the cow, for example, becomes completely depressed, loses interest in everything. Breathing, palpitations are disturbed, coughing may occur. The digestive system also suffers: the intestine stops being toned (atony), the feces become very dense, and in some animals, on the contrary, diarrhea begins. The blood becomes watery, loses a rich red color.
Cows lose weight quickly and stop giving milk. Pregnant individuals often have abortions, especially in the second half of the term. Due to a metabolic disorder, patients may try to eat inedible things, such as earth.
Pathological changes in the body
When examining the corpses of affected cows revealed the characteristic signs of anaplasmosis cattle. Dead animals are very depleted, skeletal muscles are pale, yellowish, flabby, there may be traces of hemorrhages. The spleen, gallbladder are markedly enlarged, signs of emphysema are visible in the lungs. Kidneys are also more than normal, dark, unhealthy color. Urine in the bladder, turbid.
In various places with anaplasmosis in a cow, including in the subcutaneous layers, edema can be noticeable. They are especially pronounced on the stomach, stomach, neck (swelling in these areas can be seen in living sick animals). The heart, like the rest of the muscles, is pale pink, with spot hemorrhages. Lymph nodes are also enlarged.
Suffer and liver. It seems to be poured with water, pale, more than normal size.
It is worth noting that the disease can occur in cows both acutely and chronically. In the second case, it is transferred more easily. The acute stage lasts 15-30 days, and recovery occurs gradually. Full recovery takes a lot of time.
Diagnosis, tests and immunity
In identifying anaplasmosis, it is important not to confuse it with other diseases characteristic of animals, especially since they often come in one “bouquet”. So, without special studies, you can take this disease for leptospirosis, anthrax, piroplasmosis, babesiosis, theileriosis.
Anaplasmosis is diagnosed in a cow not only on the basis of laboratory tests (mainly Romanovskiy blood smear). Take into account the epizootic situation in the region, the climate, the time of year.
There are also serological methods of diagnosis - the study of the reactions of antibodies and antigen. If the animal is sick or has recovered recently, in the credits a positive result will be at the level from 1:80 to 1: 280. Carriers of the parasite give a figure from 1:10 to 1:40.
Nevertheless, the confirmed diagnosis is considered if the corresponding result was given by a blood smear test.
Cows that have been ill develop immunity to anaplasmosis, however it is temporary. If the animal does not encounter the pathogen, and in the body it was completely destroyed, the immunity disappears after 3-4 months.
If the anaplasmosis has a pregnant or newly-recruited cow, the young get antibodies with milk and either do not get sick at all during the outbreak of infection, or the anaplasmosis proceeds easily.
If an animal is hurt by anaplasmosis, it must be kept indoors, isolated from healthy ones. The main treatment for cows is tetracycline antibiotics and sulfonamides.
Antibiotics - tetracycline, terramycin, oxytetracycline, as well as morphiclin and others, pricked intramuscularly, diluting with a 1-2% solution of novocaine. The dose of antibiotic for anaplasmosis is 5-10 thousand units per kilogram of animal weight. Enter once a day for 4-6 days.
There are drugs for long-acting anaplasmosis: oxshel, oksitetra-200, tetradur. They are called once every 3-4 days.
Terramycin can also be administered intravenously. A solution of 11.5% glucose (4%) is made at the rate of 10-15 milligrams per kilogram of weight. Enter the animal 3 or 4 times, the interval between treatments - from 12 to 24 hours.
What else treats the disease and why diet is important
Intramuscularly with anaplasmosis, the cow is also prescribed sulfapyridazine sodium. Diluted in distilled water 0.05 grams per kilogram in the ratio of 1:10. Enter once a day for three days.
Inside give biomitsin - 10 milligrams per kilogram, also once a day for 5-7 days. Sulfantrol is also used intramuscularly and intravenously.
Well helps with anaplasmosis solution on alcohol drug ethacridine lactate. It is prepared as follows: 200 milligrams of the drug plus 60 milliliters of ethyl alcohol, plus 120 milliliters of distilled water. The mixture must be filtered and then administered intravenously to the animal.
Of great importance is the diet, because the metabolism is disturbed in a sick cow. It is important that the feed is easily digestible, better - juicy greens. Drink plenty of water too. Be sure to give vitamins, macro - and micronutrients.
Do not forget about symptomatic treatment: give an animal drugs that relieve pain and reduce fever.
How to protect against anaplasmosis
Prevention of this disease is complex. If you live in an area where there have already been flashes of anaplasmosis, it is imperative to treat livestock against ticks and other insect vectors. It is important to monitor the state of pastures where cows graze. It also needs to be subjected to special treatment. If this is not possible, then all cattle are treated with acaricidal agents once a week.
All new animals entering a prosperous herd should be kept in quarantine for at least 30 days. During this time, they are fully examined for anaplasmosis. Sick or recovered individuals can not be combined with "clean" livestock. When importing new individuals, be sure to check with their owner the certificate on the form number 1.
In places where cattle is kept, it is necessary to carry out sanitary measures in a timely manner. So, 3-4 times a year, the desacarisation of premises, parking lots, yards, where animals are located, is obligatory.
If in your region there were cases of winter anaplasmosis, cows kept in stalls, in the fall they change their diet: they give less silage and haylage, but they add trace elements and vitamins.
In addition, there is an anaplasmosis vaccine. It provides the animal immunity for 10-11 months.
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