With the wrong treatment or late diagnosis, calf diseases can lead to death or serious developmental disorders. Newborn babies they lie in wait at every turn. It is in the first years of the calf’s life that breeders need maximum attention and awareness in first aid. Indeed, in time detected diseases of young animals in most cases can be cured without consequences.
Lurks before birth
Asphyxiation or asphyxiation is the very first frontier for a calf. In the process of calving, the umbilical cord can turn around the neck and strangle the animal. The reason is hidden in prolonged labor or in the wrong position of the fetus.
If your cow gives birth to an experienced specialist, then the probability of avoiding asphyxia is very high. To do this, it is necessary to pull out the calf as quickly as possible, to clear his respiratory tract, clean his nostrils and oral cavity, remove mucus by "shaking out".
To give the calf a chance to breathe, an Esmarkh mug and a tip syringe are used. After all manipulations, the newborn must be washed with a damp cloth and the respiratory tract cleaned with a damp rag harness.
Infections do not sleep: coronavirus disease
Signs of Noah infection in calves that were born quite recently are diagnosed quite often, but in more than 50% of cases the disease is treatable. It is difficult to confuse with another disease, as the symptoms are pronounced. This is a liquid bloody diarrhea and bloating due to accumulated gas. Also eyes begin to water, there is a rapid loss of moisture.
When ingested, coronaviruses cause an accumulation of gases, the formation of ulcers on the walls of the intestine and oral cavity, and a reddish-mucous fluid appears. All this provokes sepsis and dehydration, which further leads to the death of the individual.
In order to prevent infection, animals must be vaccinated immediately after their birth, because the most dangerous period is the age from a week to 1 month. The older the calf becomes, the easier it will carry the infection and he will have a better chance of recovery.
What causes umbilical diseases, how to recognize and treat them
Diseases of the navel may appear in calves in the first months of life. The causes of such diseases lie in improper care for a newborn or in non-professional cutting of the umbilical cord. It is easy to recognize the disease, since all the signs appear outside:
- the calf becomes weak;
- his breathing slows down;
- the umbilical canal begins to fester;
- there is swelling of the umbilical canal that bothers the animal;
- with late treatment, the umbilical canal turns into a mass of pus.
If you notice any of these signs - you should immediately treat the wound with an antiseptic and call a veterinarian. In addition to infection, umbilical disease can cause improper healing of the umbilical cord, which leads to the formation of an ulcer. In this case, the umbilical canal must be cleaned by surgery.
Infectious diseases of newborn calves: colibacteriosis
E. coli becomes the distributor of the disease colibacteriosis in newborn calves. The disease affects the smallest animals that have not even turned a week. The reason may be:
- spoiled feeding products;
- microbes contained in colostrum;
- infection from a sick calf;
- infection from adults.
The disease is accompanied by high fever and a flush of mucous membranes. External signs of colibacillosis are easily confused with poisoning. In especially acute cases, diarrhea, dehydration and sepsis can occur.
To avoid this disease, it is important to keep the heifers and calves clean and also to monitor their hygiene. If you find in cattle of any age lethargy, edema of the perineal folds, loss of appetite and increase mucous membranes should immediately contact a veterinarian.
Infectious diseases in newborns: diplococcal infection
Diplococcal infection of calves is one of the most dangerous diseases that animals between the ages of 2 and 6 months can wait for. The danger of this infection is that it reduces blood clotting, and if untreated, the calf can die from heavy internal bleeding.
Cause of infection is contaminated food or poor calf conditions. Signs of this disease of young cattle look as follows: apathy, lack of appetite, fever.
Like many infectious diseases, diplococcal infection resembles poisoning, but only in its early stages. In the later stages, problems with the joints appear, and breathing becomes difficult.
If you notice any signs of this disease, you should immediately call a veterinarian. The treatment is done by medication under the supervision of a physician. If the disease is not detected in time, the calf can die within one week.
Infectious diseases of the calf: salmonellosis
Salmonellosis or paratyphoid fever can affect a newborn calf up to 2 months old. The problem with this disease is that it is so similar to food poisoning that it is extremely difficult to diagnose. Meanwhile, if time does not begin treatment, the calf will not be able to be saved.
Salmonellosis enters the intestine, like most infectious diseases through poor-quality food, from infected animals, due to non-compliance with hygiene standards.
Although the intestine is the source of infection, the disease later spreads to other organs.
In the first periods of a calf's life, for any sign of infectious diseases, it is necessary to contact a veterinarian. This need stems from the fact that many infectious diseases, such as paratyphoid fever, can be diagnosed only in laboratory conditions. And salmonellosis is also dangerous for people, so that excess anxiety does not hurt at all.
Infectious diseases: cryptosporidiosis
This is a very dangerous infectious disease that occurs in newborn cattle. Cryptosporidiosis calves cause parasites that enter the baby's stomach. The sources of these bacteria are food, water and poor conditions. This is one of the few infections that enters the body not only through the stomach, but also through the respiratory tract.
Once in the body of an animal, bacteria cause sepsis, due to which an extremely high temperature rises. If the temperature drops sharply, then this is probably a bad symptom, rather than the result of recovery. In the course of the disease, animals suffer from blood dysentery, lack of appetite, drowsiness, difficulty breathing, convulsions.
The danger of the disease is that it can be transmitted to adults and even to humans. For the latter, the disease is not fatal, but, one way or another, in the process of treatment, care should be taken and contact the veterinarian.
If you keep animals clean and monitor their hygiene, then most of the infectious diseases will be avoided.
One of the most dangerous infectious diseases: dysentery
Very often, cattle suffer from dysentery. For newborn calves, the most serious danger is dysentery anaerobic. The cause of the disease may again be food, water, or poor quality conditions.
Symptoms of the disease appear immediately, which facilitates diagnosis and treatment. A calf infected with this disease begins to suffer from diarrhea, weakness and lack of appetite.
Treatment of dysentery should be trusted only to specialists, and not try to use folk remedies, since the disease can be transmitted to humans. But the most effective way to combat dysentery is to prevent it.
The disease itself is very difficult and often fatal. The animal develops ulcers and inflammation throughout the small intestine, sepsis. For this reason, the independent recovery of the calf is impossible. When symptoms of dysentery develop, the baby must be urgently isolated in order to prevent contamination of the rest of the cattle.
Be careful: Escherichiosis kills
Often, newborns show another one of the most serious diseases. The reasons for the occurrence of colibacillosis calves can be many. For example, it is transmitted from an adult individual, manifests itself independently due to the underdevelopment of the fetus, and also accompanies other intestinal diseases.
The disease proceeds hard, is accompanied by dehydration of the body, arthritis develops, pneumonia can open and sepsis can occur. In the later stages, diarrhea begins, it becomes difficult for calves to breathe, their pulse decreases. Remember that in acute form, colibacillosis is not treatable, the calf falls into a coma and dies.
Insidious disease - bronchopneumonia
Most often, this disease affects exactly the calves of the first month of life. By itself, it is not as dangerous as those diseases that may occur on its background. This happens because of a strong decrease in immunity in the calf, which contributes to the emergence of new, the most serious diseases. The so-called rotavirus infection of calves, if left untreated, will kill the baby in a few weeks.
Fortunately, diagnosing a disease is not difficult. The first signs that the calf is ill with bronchopneumonia should be considered: fever, abundant mucous discharge in the airways, diarrhea, heart problems, general weakness of the body.
It can only be treated by a veterinarian who knows exactly which drugs should be prescribed. Most often, along with drug treatment, vitamin therapy and a specialized diet are used.
The consequences of improper care: rickets
Such diseases as rickets, calves appear at different ages. With timely detection of the disease is not dangerous and can be treated independently by the owner without the intervention of a veterinarian. A prerequisite for the manifestation of the disease is the lack of vitamin "D" - this is the main cause of rickets, not only in animals, but also in humans.
The description of the disease in the early stages looks like developmental retardation: the skeleton becomes thinner in the calves, the bones become fragile, and the deformity of the bones begins.
If you do not start treatment in time, rickets can make major changes in the musculoskeletal system, which will lead to disastrous consequences. For example, when a skeleton is deformed, internal organs can be damaged.
Even after the disease has been cured, you should not lose sight of the baby, because the effects of rickets can manifest themselves for several years. In order to prevent disturbances in the body of the calf, it is important to monitor its diet, conditions of detention and regular walking in clear sunny weather.
Eat right: timpany calves
Tympania or bloating may occur in young cattle at the age of several months. The cause of the disease become poor-quality food or transfer calves to solid varieties of feed. Tympania can develop due to the fact that the calf is eaten by spoiled fruit or plants while grazing.
Characteristic of the disease: left side swelling, loss of appetite and shortness of breath. Treatment for such diseases prescribed by a veterinarian, but you can independently help your baby:
- to massage the swollen side;
- give some vegetable oil;
- drink fresh milk;
- make walk (at least 30 minutes).
If the disease is severe, it is necessary to call a specialist. Well, in order to prevent disease, it is important to monitor the calves. Do not allow them to graze on wet pastures and do not water after feeding with solid feed.
Feeding calves: bezoar disease
Digestive problems are often pursued by young cattle during the transition from feeding milk to another diet. Bezoar sick calves can lead to death if not treated in time. But it is best to prevent the disease at all, because it is not at all difficult to do. Just need to keep the calves clean and monitor the diet of young animals - products should be easily digested. Proper nutrition of nursing cows should also be organized.
And for the prevention of bezoar disease, give calves preparations to improve the functioning of the digestive system. It will not be superfluous to carry out prevention with laxatives in order to clear the stomach.
The very same disease occurs due to the remnants of indigestible products, which form bezoars - lumps. The body itself can not get rid of them, which leads to congestion of the digestive system. In particularly severe cases, surgery may be required.
How to recognize sifunkulyatoz?
Sifunkulyatoz or, in a simple way, lice, can occur in cattle at any age. This is one of the most common diseases, because lice live everywhere. Most often, the infection is transmitted from already infected individuals or through litter. To save livestock from lice, there are special preparations, most importantly, in time to recognize the appearance of parasites. How to do it? Pay attention to the characteristic phenomena. Animals begin to itch, which is why blood scratches appear on their bodies. They do not heal well, as the cows continue to itch. In young individuals, growth slows down, dermatitis may begin, and hair begins to fall.
If you notice these signs, it is necessary to examine the animal. Most often, louses are collected around the neck and tail. To destroy the lice is recommended to treat the patient with insecticides.
Consequences of malnutrition: gastroenteritis in young animals
Digestion is the most vulnerable system, and it is for this reason that calf prevention of gastroenteritis is of particular importance. In order to prevent the occurrence of the disease, it is recommended to monitor the cleanliness and freshness of the products that the animal consumes.
A sign of gastroenteritis is diarrhea. And if you suspect this disease, you should immediately begin treatment. For this, the calf must follow a special diet.
The first three days he is not allowed to go to the milk, but is given to drink salted water. Every day the salt content in the water increases. It is recommended to water the calf 4-6 times a day. In one of the daytime drinks, you can replace the water with strong tea with salt. Once a day it is worth giving boiled egg whites.
In this article, we consider the serious diseases of young cattle that require the intervention of a veterinarian and diseases of calves with their signs and treatment, when you can help yourself.
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