Smallpox in pigeons, the treatment of which we consider in this article is one of the most frequent and very dangerous diseases of birds. With such a disease are regularly found as owners of domestic birds, and wild. If your pigeon ruffled feathers, lowered its head and wings, does not fly - this is an occasion to sound the alarm. Let's talk about this in more detail.
What kind of disease?
Smallpox is a disease with an acute course that poxviruses cause, and is characterized mainly by a lesion with a rash of mucous membranes and the skin around them. This disease is very common among birds all over the world and with late treatment can turn into a chronic form. Most often, pigeons suffer from this disease in the warm season, when the body’s immunity decreases dramatically.
It is noteworthy that mainly young birds suffer from smallpox, while adults are carriers. Having infected through the droppings and various mucous secretions, pigeons carry the virus for about two months even without external manifestations of the disease. In nature, the smallpox virus is transmitted through insects, for example, bloodsucker flies or ticks. Experts believe that the risk of disease in pigeons increases when they are kept:
- in poorly ventilated areas;
- in violation of sanitary and hygienic standards;
- lack of food;
- living in wet cold dovecotes;
- the development of the virus also provokes a lack of vitamin A.
Symptoms of the disease
Of course, before embarking on the treatment of a bird, it must be carefully examined, it is possible to detect all possible symptoms of the virus, and if possible show it to the veterinarian. This is important because smallpox has several stages of development with different symptoms, each stage requires its own treatment. For example, smallpox is cutaneous, diphtheria and mixed. Remember that it is impossible to delay the treatment of this ailment even at the earliest stage, otherwise then the bird can not be saved.
As a rule, the first symptoms indicating a smallpox virus are manifested in pigeons at the 15-20 day of infection. At this time in the body it develops and gradually lowers the immune system, and this is dangerous in its own way. At first, the pigeon can be lethargic, seemingly sullen, with wings down and head. Then smallpox is manifested by skin rashes, gradually turning into diphtheric and mixed form. So, the main symptoms:
- lethargy and pain of the bird;
- the appearance of small rashes and red spots on the head, at the base of the beak, around the eyes;
- gray-yellow peels on the skin;
- if eye mucosa is affected, lacrimation, eyelid swelling, photophobia is observed;
- in later stages, rashes and formations appear on the mucous membrane of the larynx, nasopharynx, and goiter;
- white films in the mouth on the mucous membrane, the bird wheezes, opens the beak.
The virus is also dangerous because it spreads with the blood to all tissues, where if untreated, pox formations can occur. If the bird is properly and promptly treated, the disease retreats and lifelong immunity is formed.
Often, smallpox poultry farmers and not immediately distinguished, confusing with respiratory infections. The fact is that sometimes the disease can first affect the respiratory system. For example, the bird is breathing heavily, pulling the neck out, wheezing and groaning, a runny nose, tears. That is why it is very important to immediately show a sick individual to a veterinarian if you cannot accurately determine the diagnosis yourself.
How and what to treat smallpox in pigeons?
As a rule, the treatment of smallpox in pigeons lasts a long and hard. If the diagnosis is precisely established and the degree of development of the virus is determined, it is worthwhile to start treatment immediately.
- To begin with, all visible skin rashes are treated with a 2% solution of boric acid or Losevalam. Those areas that already have dark-colored crusts on the skin should be cauterized with tincture of iodine or lapis, and then lubricated with a children's non-greasy cream.
- If the disease has started a lesion with the beak of the pigeons, the stratum corneum is internally treated with lozevalem with glucose or lugol solution. Be sure to parallel the bird give antibiotics, for example, thelan, tetracycline.
- Drinking water during poultry treatment should be disinfected with a solution of chloramine (1%) or with potassium permanganate. But as for the dovecote, it is treated with aerosol special iodide preparations.
- If the affected internal mucous areas of the mouth, the larynx, they are smeared with cotton buds with Lugol's solution, as well as Loseval. For about 5 days, the sick bird should receive an antibiotic and, in parallel, vitamin-amino acid preparations and immunomodulators, for example, the premix "Cizar" or Gamavit.
- You also need to get rid of those eggs, which, for example, can carry a sick female. This will save the next generation from the disease.
Birds that are heavily infected and the disease occurs in the last stage, most often destroy, because they are no longer amenable to treatment. Observe preventive and quarantine measures during the acquisition of new birds, as well as conduct a special vaccination of young.