A fairly common disease of livestock is pseudomonosis of calves. How does this infection manifest itself and how to deal with it, we will tell in our review.
What is this disease and how does it proceed?
Pseudomonosis is an acute infection of a contagious nature (that is, transmitted through direct contact with the pathogen). Most often in rural livestock farms young cows suffer from it. Pseudomonosa bacillus is widely distributed in nature and survives well in warm and humid environments. The ideal temperature for this pathogen is 35-37 degrees Celsius.
In agriculture, pseudomonosis bacteria prefer to inhabit organic media. Ideal habitat - stale vegetable feed, compost heaps. The approximate life expectancy of bacteria in favorable conditions is about six months. Adult calf animals or sick people are the main source of infection for calves, since pseudomonosis is a human infection too.
A sick animal, like an infected person, secretes pseudomonosis bacteria with sweat, saliva, feces, urine, blood and mucus from the nose. Water can also be a potential source of infection, as well as household items (brushes, brooms, scrapers, rags for cleaning the barn). With an outbreak of the disease, about half of all the calves living in the barn fall ill. Mortality in pseudomonosis can reach up to 70%.
Factors contributing to the spread of infection are the warm season (autumn-summer), high humidity, low insolation and lack of hygiene.
Pseudomonosis of calves is accompanied by symptoms such as arthritis, diarrhea and various pneumonic manifestations. The incubation period of infection is from 20 to 48 hours, rarely more. In the first hour of illness in children, the temperature rises by one degree, the appetite disappears. If the infection is predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea will be the first obvious symptom.
The feces of a sick animal contain mucus and blood. With the defeat of pseudomonosal bacteria of the lungs there is a cough and a flow of mucus from the nostrils. If the baby was infected with an infection still in the womb, he dies several hours after birth. External manifestations of the disease:
- point hemorrhages in the gastric mucosa;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- mucus drainage.
The main method of treating calves is medicamentous. Antibiotics such as streptomycin sulfate, neomycin sulfate, kanamycin, cephalexin, cephalotoxime, and others are used to eliminate pulmonary symptoms. Antibiotics are administered intramuscularly, usually by a veterinarian, since the dose is calculated on the basis of the weight of the animal and its condition.
If the gastrointestinal tract is affected, use drugs such as startin, Lers, veglyukosalan, rekultrantan, vetseptol and others. The doctor may also inject Ringer's solution or saline solution to replenish electrolytes and prevent dehydration. The latter measure is very effective if the sick calf does not show a sucking reflex.
In addition to antibiotics, vitamin oil-based and water-based drugs (retinol, vitamin D, nicotinic and ascorbic acid, and group B vitamins) are useful. With the improvement of the condition of the animal, drugs that normalize the microflora, for example, lactobacterin, bifidobacterin, colibacterin, are poured. The dosage is 3 ml per kilogram of body weight of the calf. Useful bacteria feed the baby from a bottle of milk.
To avoid the spread of pseudomonosis on the farm and to protect calves from infection, follow simple preventive measures:
- animals must be kept in a clean, dry and ventilated area;
- provide clean water for babies and adults;
- monitor their condition every day, at the first signs of loss of appetite and dyspeptic manifestations, contact your veterinarian;
- feed preparation should be carried out in special areas where it is clean and dry;
- the floor, ceilings and walls of the barn need weekly mechanical cleaning and disinfection;
- sick animals are kept separately from healthy ones; they are not removed from the farm until recovery;
- for the period of treatment, a quarantine is introduced on the farm, which is removed 15 days after the recovery of the last sick calf or adult cow.