A horse cart is perhaps the very first form of transport. At the same time, with the increase in human needs for shipping and transportation, the design of carts improved and became more complicated. Moreover, they all meant a different number of horses, which also complicated the process of the team. How to harness a horse today and what constitutes a cart, let's talk in more detail.
A cart or cart most often represents a four-wheel type of wagon. It is rarely used as a passenger transport because of its inconvenient design. It is important to note that today the concept of "cart" is often used as a generalized name for any horse-drawn carriage. However, in reality, this is the name of a single-wheel four-wheel beamless car, with a loading capacity of 500-700 kilograms. The most commonly used is shafting and breathing harness.
Despite its primitiveness, the cart is still an integral type of freight transport in many regions of the country. Having a complex structure, it is used both in private households and on farms. For example, in such a wagon it is easy to transport hay and cargo within the same holding. And carts for heavy trucks are free to use for transporting several tons of cargo (usually 2 tons).
Presumably, the first carts appeared in the 12th century. Since that time, their basic design and purpose have changed little. Modern carts, as before, are made of wood with a metal bottom structure. Spring rubber wheels, while the front is often slightly smaller than the rear. There are onboard and platform cart.
How to harness a horse?
In order to harness a horse in a cart it is necessary to know the complete design of the team, since the whole process will depend on it. The function of the harness is to transfer the animal to the vehicle itself. To keep the horse working, the harness is selected individually depending on the size and constitution of the animal. For this there are special adjusting belts.
In our country today, three types of teams are used: single-cone, parokonnoy and multi-window for triples. In the West, among the latter type, there are four, six and eight. Also harness can be arc, arc-less, outbound and transport. The broader classification distinguishes the shafts-arc or "Russian" harness, homutovo-shafting, post-edge-breathing and post-edge harness. All of them are distinguished by their design and method of harnessing horses.
What is needed to harness a horse in such a traditionally single-horse Russian cart? First, we need to know what the harness consists of and whether we have everything. So, we must have a yoke with tugs, supone, stitches (arrestor), arc, nurse with cracker. Be sure to clamp chosen individually for your horse. It should fit snugly to the shoulders of the animal, like a shirt collar. If the clamp is large, it must be narrowed down by strips inside the felt. If the clamp is small, it can not be used at all.
You should not use a cradle without a nurse, as its thin belt can damage the skin. He stretches and passes through the upper part of the nurse. This part of the harness helps to distribute the pressure from the shafts on the back of the animal. The arch supports in the correct position of the shafts, which keeps the clamp itself. Each part has its own sequence of donning.
- We always begin to harness a horse by dressing the reins. If it is winter, a bit or a bit, you need to warm it in your hands, so that the cold iron does not damage the soft tissues.
- Then in the left hand we take the harness, in the right nurse with the cradle and impose the saddle on the back of the animal. First, we put closer to the withers, then, straightening the wool, we move to our correct position. See the diagram.
- The front part of the nurse should lie above the withers, the back - on the back below, approximately at the level of the 9th-15th ribs.
- The nurses of the nurse should lie exactly 10 cm from the elbow of the animal. We tighten our girlfriend so that two fingers can be pushed between the horse's body and the horse.
- After that we put on a yoke. It must be turned in lower parts upwards and threaded over the horse's head. Reaching the narrowest part of the neck, turn over and put in the correct position. After straightening the hiding mane and throwing a gable on the body of the animal.
- Then we get the horse into the shafts so that the ends are located at the level of tugs.
- We turn to the right shaft and attach it to the strap of the nurse's loop. Then also on the left side.
- After that we take the arc, in the left hand holding a tug. It is necessary to bring it below the left shaft and, rounding counterclockwise, we put the end of the arc in a loop. Again around the tug of the shaft. We place the arc on the clamp so that its right end touches the right shaft. We repeat the arc threading in the loop of the right tug.
- We turn to the shoulder blade of the horse, take the supp and tighten the two edges of the yoke. It is not as easy as it seems, sometimes you need to apply force. But you still need to check whether the tug is enough. If the ends of the clamp do not close, it must be lengthened. If the clamp is closed, but the arc is bad, you need to shorten the tug.
- To bridle fasten the reins. If the horse is well listened to the occasion, then pass the reins through the middle of the arc. If bad - outside.
- Make sure the tugs are behind the arc, not in front. Check its stability and the movement of the cart.
This type of cart is used to work with a pair of horses. Often in the course of agricultural work need to use a pair. However, for such a harness the cart should be with a drawbar - a single shaft, which is located in the middle. Every horse clings to it. The main parts of this harness are the traces, breastplates and stools.
- Dress the bridles on horses and clamps.
- Place the animals on the right and left side of the drawbar.
- On the pole, we put on the nashilnik of each horse and fasten it in a ring on the breastplate. The hooks control the tension of the post-rims and fix the clamp.
- Then the bibs fasten to the collar and the liner.
- We fasten the reins to the bridle.
This is the easiest type of harness, since it has no drawbar, no shafts, no arc. Most often, this method of harness is called a strap. It can be used for cart, crew, and agricultural tools (harrow, plow). The whole essence of this type of harness is to put a horse on the horse and fasten it to the ring of the wagon. The dressing scheme of the shley is similar to a hollow-arc harness.