The processing of bees from the tick in spring is a very important moment in the life of each beekeeper. After all, it is on this treatment that the health and working capacity of striped workers depends. Unfortunately, it is necessary to process bees every year or even twice a year. We will talk about how and what to carry out the treatment later in the article.
When to start processing bees?
The processing of bees from the tick usually starts in spring, in March, when there is little honey in the evidence. The optimal time is until the first spring cleaning flight (occurs approximately at the end of March and the beginning of April). It is called cleaning because during the winter a lot of waste is collected in the bees. Because of their slow metabolism, they “save” this waste until spring, and when they first fly around, they dump it.
Thus, if some substances after tick-borne treatment and remain in the body of an insect, then they will be released during a cleansing flight. The second stage is carried out in the autumn, after completion of the honey collection. This minimizes the risk of getting a toxic product. Well, in summer there is practically no tick due to high temperatures and dry air.
What exactly and how to carry out the treatment?
In the spring processing is carried out by various methods. There are quite a lot of them, however, methods using acids (oxalic, lactic, formic), as well as medicinal substances with different active ingredients are considered the most popular against ticks. Read more about each of them.
The use of acid, in particular, oxalic acid, has proved itself quite well. For processing the hive at the start of using the method, a 2% solution of this preparation was used. At present, a method of spraying oxalic acid vapor is safer for beekeeper and bees. This remedy helps against all types of tick-borne diseases: varroatosis, acarapidosis.
In Germany, for example, formic acid is more actively used, while oxalic acid is fed to bees mixed with sugar syrup. Next, watch the video on the treatment of bees with oxalic acid. Spraying is carried out in the spring.
Use of timol
A not very popular, but effective way to combat varroa and acarapidosis is treating hives with Thymol. The preparation placed in special bags (crystals or powder, the total weight is about 0.2 grams) is placed on the upper part of the frame bars. The second option is to pour the substance into the bags (weight 10-15 grams) and place on top of the honeycomb. This method is considered backup against the tick and is not used universally. Its toxicity to bees is average, the survival rate after treatment in spring is good.
A rather old way to treat ticks in bees is to heat treat hives. It is used mainly in early spring, since it is at this time that the lowest risk of overheating of the bees is due to the low temperature. The standard temperature for warming up the evidence is 47-48 degrees; it is during this period that all types of ticks perish. However, from the point of view of safety for insects, it is not very practical.
For this method, bees are smoked from the hive into a special cassette with holes from which the mites will fall out during processing. Then this cassette is placed in a sauna or a bath with a corresponding temperature, note the time (from 12 to 14 minutes). During this period, the cassette is shaken to prevent insects from sticking together.
After a specified time, you need to take out the cassette to room temperature, hold for another 15 minutes and release the bees into the hive, pretreated with a blowtorch. Given the complexity of the method, it is gradually being supplanted by medicinal substances, the use of which is more justified and requires less labor.
From all types of tick epidemics, drugs based on Amitraz are actively used. Among them are "Bipin", "Tactic", "Metak". Therapeutic is a solution of a substance in 12.5%. And it was Bipin who was the first of them. The arguability of its usefulness is still being discussed by beekeepers, but it is said that it gives a good survival rate and a high rate of recovery of bees. Bipin is usually used in spring and autumn. In the summer it is almost never used.
Preparations with Acaricide
Component Acaricide - very effective, because it is one of the last, developed to combat tick. In modern beekeeping farms, special acaricide-impregnated plates are used, which are left in the hive for a day.
The mechanism of action of the plate is as follows: it is placed in the space between the frames so that the insect can “pass” alongside, touching the surface with the medicine. The properties of acaricide paralyze ticks, and they remain on the strips.
The most famous names of such drugs: Apifit, Apistan, Fumisan and others. In each country the name may differ, but the properties remain identical. This method of processing bees can be used for about 4 seasons, the habituation to the active substance is further noted, and the tick stops responding.
A rather effective and simple recipe that will help defeat the tick is an ordinary control of the affected brood. Moreover, it is often more affected brood brood, and not working bees. For a quick and effective struggle, use the branch of the drone brood by means of special building frames. When the brood is sealed, it is simply cut, and the honeycomb is melted to get the wax. Thus, most of the ticks are destroyed. Since the time of appearance of the first brood is the end of winter, the treatment in the spring will be the most effective.
How to do the processing yourself?
So, after we learned how many methods to help get rid of the tick, there is a need to consider self-sanitation of the hive. It is better to do this in the spring for several reasons: firstly, the winter dampness has already gone and will be only warmer in the future, secondly, the bees increase in activity, therefore, the parasites do not sleep, become more aggressive, become more active.
The following describes how to self-treat bees with Sanapine - an anti-varroatosis drug or varroa mite. The month of spring is March, the fall is September. Time - morning, before the first flight.
- Close the entrance, very quietly remove the top cover.
- The ceiling board or canvas is removed, preferably in the place where there are no insects (usually it is the back wall).
- The ampoule with the drug is shaken, crushed by its nippers with its tip and thrown near the rear wall of the hive.
- Put the ceiling in place and wait at least 30 and no more than 40 minutes. Then open the tap hole.
Everything! The reorganization was carried out; it will only remain to carefully remove the remnants of the ampoule, but this is elementary by pulling out the frames and sweeping out the garbage.