In this article we will find out how many teeth a rabbit has. And also we will examine the features of the structure of his jaws and talk about the diseases that most often torment the animal. When incisors or molars begin to hurt the animal, it refuses to eat, dermatological diseases appear, and abscesses in the region of the face. These pathologies can cause weight loss and even death. In order for eared fish to grow up healthy, it is worthwhile to regularly inspect the oral cavity and not forget about preventive measures.
The structure of the dental system of rabbits
The structure of the dental system of animals is determined by physiology. Since rabbits eat only plant food, it is finally crushed and ground in the stomach and intestines. The number of teeth in adults is 28, and they are intended for preparatory work.
Fuzzies have 22 molars - molars (12 are located above and 10 below), 2 pairs of incisors - in the upper jaw, one pair of incisors - in the lower jaw. Rabbits have a toothless cavity, which anatomically arose due to the absence of canines.
In an animal, teeth begin to grow from the first days of life. During the week, their length reaches 2.5 mm (approximately 9-12 cm per year). Enamel covers the entire length of the process, performing a protective function. The access of the rabbit breeder to the molar teeth of the rabbit is difficult due to the small opening of the mouth, therefore it is difficult to detect their proliferation in a timely manner.
The structure of the teeth in decorative pets
In the decorative rabbit, the dental system is no different from the wild counterparts. It is worth checking the condition of the incisors to the rabbit breeder at least every six months. To prevent active growth, long teeth should be ground according to the intensity of their growth.
Stitching is ensured when animals use roughage, such as hay, twigs. Juicy herbal cultures also do an excellent job with this task, plus they contain fiber and silicates.
If the rabbit is not sick with anything, he does not just gnaw the food with the front incisors, but also uses the side teeth to crush the food. Therefore, do not think that there are too many of them.
If you suspect a dental disease should be attributed to the animal to the vet. The doctor examines the fluff with an auroscope and makes a valid diagnosis.
A doctor can diagnose malocclusion (the disease is characterized by a violation of the correct joining between the teeth of both jaws), the appearance of purulent exudate and abscesses in the mouth or face. Often found in rabbits intensive root growth, it can cause a disturbance in the eyes or nasolacrimal canal.
Malocclusion - the most common disease
If an animal has an incorrect growth of teeth, they do not have time to grind, injure the oral cavity and cause pain to the rabbit, we can talk about malacclusion. If the breeder suspects the disease in the animal, you should immediately contact a specialist. A veterinarian examines the oral cavity with sterile equipment. Sometimes for this animal anesthesia is pricked. For an accurate diagnosis, the doctor may need an x-ray of both jaws.
Malocclusion in a rabbit is of two types: congenital and acquired. If the animal is completely healthy, the incisors will close when the mouth is closed. If the bite is wrong, gaps will occur between them, as a result of which they will not grind off.
The distance between them happens when there is a shortage (the upper teeth are localized in front of the lower ones) and a snack (the lower incisors are located in front of the upper ones).
Fold ram rabbits have a hereditary predisposition to low occlusion.
The main causes of disease in animals
The veterinarian will not be able to prescribe an effective therapeutic course if he does not find out the cause of the malocclusion. The most common factors affecting the occurrence of the disease are:
- poor nutrition:
- metabolic disorders;
- bacterial infection affecting the roots;
If the rabbit is not given coarse fiber, grinding will not occur naturally. As a result, fluffy will have serious problems with teeth. Feeding the animal with purchased feeds that contain little fiber increases the risk of dental diseases.
If the jaw bones are displaced or incorrectly fused after an injury, there is a high probability of a change in the bite. In this case, the teeth will grind very badly.
In order for 28 teeth to grow healthy, it is worth feeding the animal products with a sufficient amount of calcium. With poor absorption of the substance, they weaken, the habitual act of chewing is disturbed. Bacterial infection can cause abnormal occlusion.
The rabbit's teeth will grind intensively if the feed contains silicon salts (silicates) that provide abrasivity.
Symptoms of the disease
Maloccluses are affected not only by incisors, but also molars. The main symptoms of the disease are: instant weight loss, unwillingness to eat. The animal may begin to eat, and then suddenly stop. There is no desire to clean and comb, no stool, which is associated with a violation of the digestive tract. The animal can imitate chewing food.
Also a symptom of the pathology becomes the cessation of eating the night feces. The problem is connected with the fact that the incisors of the fluffy hurt a lot, it cannot do anything with the pain syndrome. Another sign of an abnormal bite is that youngsters prefer soft food and completely refuse to eat hay and coarse food.
Other symptoms include: lacrimation, drooling, inflammation of the face, injuries of the mucous membranes, creaking incisors, the appearance of abscesses, suppuration, puffiness. The thinning of the enamel layer, discoloration of the tooth also indicate dental disease.
Pruning of teeth with malocclusion
Since an incorrect bite in rabbits cannot be cured, a veterinarian can trim his teeth to their normal size. It is not recommended to engage in self-pruning, since such a procedure can further harm the pet. The only right decision would be to visit a specialist.
Before the procedure, the doctor must wash his hands, use disposable medical gloves, and disinfect the instruments. The rabbit is anesthetized, it is fixed with straps. This can be done by an assistant or the owner himself.
The doctor moves his fingers over his rabbit lips. Long incisors are first cut with a drill or a special nail file. Then their parts are cut with sterile scissors or nippers.
If part of the tooth broke off during the manipulation, a correction is made with a special file. The doctor will tell the rabbit breeder what to do if the soft tissue is damaged during the shortening of the teeth. It is worth using an antiseptic for processing. During the manipulation of the animal will not hurt. It is necessary to consult a doctor for examination and prophylaxis 1-2 times a month.
You will learn many interesting things if you read our article "How a rabbit differs from a hare."
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