Many knowledgeable livestock breeders say that you need to start to engage in rabbit breeding after you have studied the biological characteristics of eared pets. And they, of course, are right. Rabbits belong to the family of Zaitsevs, and the structure of their organism differs little from the organisms of most mammals. However, there are still some individual features. The internal structure of the rabbit will consider right now.
Skeleton and organs of motion
Bone and muscle tissue are the basis of the structure of the animal and allow you to make movements. The basis for this, of course, is the skeleton. In a rabbit, it consists of 212 bones, not including the teeth, as well as the auditory bones. In adults, the skeleton occupies 10% of the mass of the whole organism, and in rabbits - 15%.
In its structure, the rabbit skeleton is similar to the skeleton of other mammals. Conventionally, it can be divided into two types: axial and peripheral. All major bones, that is, the head and the ridge, belong to the axial axis. The peripheral skeleton makes up the bones of the limbs.
If we consider the skull of rabbits, then it is not much different from the skull of other animals in its structure. Most, and this is about 3/4, occupies the front part. Here are some organs of the exercise of respiration and digestion. The individual parts of the skull determine the shape and size of the muzzle and differ from different breeds of rabbits.Head structure of the crawl head
The rabbit's ridge can be divided into five parts: neck, chest, loin, sacrum, and tail section. All of them have an unequal number of vertebrae. For example, the greatest number of them in the tail, and the smallest in the lumbar. Although the lumbar region is the largest in length, it has elongated vertebrae, which can be clearly seen in the photo below.
As for the peripheral skeleton, then, like in other domestic animals, in the rabbit it has a shoulder and pelvic section, as well as free limbs. But the difference is the presence of the clavicle. It connects the chest bones and scapula, which allows the animal to jump. Still it is necessary to talk about the muscular system, since its development indicates the exterior and meat qualities of the animal. This system includes the muscular part of the internal organs and the body itself.
The skeleton of the rabbit: 1 - the bones of the skull; 2 - cervical vertebrae; 3 - thoracic; 4 - lumbar; 5 - sacral section; 6 - tail section; 7 - scapula; 8 - ribs; 9 - bones of the chest; 10 - bones of the pelvic limb
In newborns, the rabbit's muscular system takes up about 20% of the total weight, and by five months of life it increases to 40%.
The cardiovascular system
This system includes the blood-forming organs, the circulatory and lymphatic systems, and their derivatives (blood, lymph). Here we include arteries and veins, as well as a network of capillaries. The central nervous system is responsible for the work of all hematopoietic organs, but the contraction of the heart is regulated by the thoracic region of the bone marrow and the nerves of the medulla oblongata.
Blood is perhaps the most important component of this system. Normally, a rabbit should have about 280 ml of blood, which takes about 6% of its weight. The blood plasma consists of leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Red blood cells, in turn, carry oxygen, leukocytes play a protective and regulating function, and platelets are responsible for blood clotting. The body temperature of the rabbits in winter is normally around 37 degrees, in the summer it is 40–41 degrees.
The heart is the main motor of the body and the most important organ of the entire circulatory system. His task is to perform the role of a pump, pumping and moving blood throughout the body of an animal. In fact, like all other living beings. In adults, the heart occupies a small part of the body - only about 0.3% of its weight and has a mass of 6-6.5 grams. This is a muscular organ with two ventricles and two atria, called chambers. A rabbit's pulse rate can normally range from 110 to 160 beats per minute.
Other hematopoietic organs
Also in this animal system are organs such as the spleen, appendix, bone marrow, lymph nodes and the thymus gland. Their role is to form additional blood elements. For example, the spleen weighs no more than 1.5 grams and is responsible for adjusting blood pressure. It forms lymphocytes and destroys the "old" outdated erythrocytes. They, in turn, creates the bone marrow. The thymus gland stimulates the formation of blood in other organs. Its mass does not exceed 2.3 grams in a little rabbit, but with age it decreases.
This is one of the most important systems that implements and supports the nutrition of the body and its life. In rabbits, as in many other herbivores, the internal organs of this system are adapted to the processing of large quantities of bulk and roughage. The digestive apparatus is very well developed, and the entire length of the intestine takes up more than 18% of the total body weight. What is included in this system, you can learn in more detail from the scheme. The first stage of food processing begins with its grinding in the mouth.
The teeth of the rabbit have their own characteristics. Newborn animals have 16 teeth, which change occurs from the 18th day of life. Adult rabbits have only 28 teeth, which is smaller than other animals. They also have 4 on the top and 2 on the bottom of large cutters with which the animal nibbles the food. By molars, which are on the side, he crushes food. Food, crushed with teeth and moistened with saliva, goes down the throat, then enters the esophagus and stomach.
Rabbits have a rather large (up to 200 cm3) stomach with a single chamber, which is a band internal organ. Gastric juice secreted by the glands consists mostly of hydrochloric acid and a special substance, pepsin. The total acidity is from 0.18 to 0, 35%, and the activity of its enzymes is much higher than in other animals. It is important to note that the fiber of the stomach of rabbits does not digest and it moves further into the intestine itself. There is already the final stage of digestion.
The intestine is thin and thick division. In the first one, the main splitting of all substances takes place. Here are absorbed amino acids and other substances that are immediately sent to the blood. Then the food moves into the thick section where the fermentation processes take place. Here the fiber is broken down and absorbed. Leftover food and waste are eliminated from the body approximately nine hours after eating.The digestive system of the rabbit: 1 - heart; 2 - lungs; 3 - the liver; 4 - esophagus; 5 - the stomach; 6 - the kidneys; 7 - small intestines; 8 - colon; 9 - cecum; 10- bladder
The enrichment of the body with oxygen supports the respiratory organs, namely the nose and its cavity, pharynx, trachea and lungs. In the nose part, the air is warmed, moistened and cleaned of dust, is sent through the throat to the trachea and then to the lungs. It is important to note that rabbits are very sensitive to the purity of the air. The high content of ammonia in the air, dirt, dust, carbon dioxide adversely affects the condition and health of animals.
The lungs are paired organs that carry out gas exchange. Despite the very low weight (about 0.36% of the total mass), the frequency of respiration in rabbits is higher than that of other pets and depends on body temperature. Normal per minute, the rabbit takes up to 282 breaths, while it absorbs over 500 cm3 of oxygen. If, for example, the animal absorbed 478 cm3, then carbon dioxide will release 451 cm3, which characterizes a very active gas exchange.
In a rabbit, this system includes both genital and urinary organs. The latter include the kidneys, ureters and urethra. This system provides the excretion of animal decay products. The amount of urine depends on age and nutrition, per day can vary from 110 to over 400 ml. The urinary canal itself is closely connected with the genitals, or rather, in females with a vagina, and in males with a glans penis.
Paired organ in the form of beans, which is located on both sides of the spine in the lumbar region. The process of urine formation in the kidneys occurs continuously. Here proteins, mineral salts and other substances break down. Content from the kidneys through the ureters enters the bladder, where it accumulates before the onset of a reflex response to the outside.
In male rabbits, the sexual apparatus is represented by paired testes, vas deferens, accessory glands and the penis itself. Seed plants with appendages weigh about 6 grams and have a slightly elongated shape. Up to 3 months in rabbits, they are in the inguinal canals and only then descend into the scrotum. The male during one mating is able to allocate up to 3.5 ml of sperm.
In females, the reproductive system includes the uterus, ovaries, oviduct, vagina, and genital opening (slit). In the ovaries mature eggs, which during ovulation fall into the oviducts. The uterus in rabbits is double and consists of two horns. The release of the egg, that is, ovulation, begins 10-12 hours after insemination. All this time the sperm is inside the vagina.
This system includes the thyroid gland, pituitary, adrenal glands, pancreas, as well as the testes and ovaries. These glands have no excretory tract, so hormones are released directly into the blood. The thyroid creates a special hormone thyroxin, which regulates metabolic processes, development and growth of the body. Adrenal glands regulate water and fat metabolism with the help of the hormone. The greatest amount of hormones secretes the pituitary gland, which is about 10, which are involved in many processes of life.
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