Winter is a very important period in beekeeping. If it is wrong to prepare for the winter, then you can suffer big losses in your farm. In this article you will read the main reasons why bees die in the winter. Knowing the factors of death, you can save insects and save their offspring.
All possible causes of death
In fact, there are a lot of reasons why bees die in the winter. Here, both external factors and the weakness of families, various diseases, and the more so negligence and irresponsibility of the beekeeper can play. Therefore, it is extremely important to explore all sorts of reasons to protect all families from death.
Lack of feed
Bees are not afraid of cold in winter, because they can warm themselves, but hunger is terrible. Why beekeepers are so careless about this - is unknown, most likely because of greed. Trying to save on fertilizing and harvesting honey for the winter, you threaten to lose yourself without a successful honey harvest. Bees die of starvation and because they are on the central "bare" framework. For example, because the cold prevents them from flying to full honey.
In addition, if the feed is of poor quality, it also entails the death of families. For wintering it is recommended to use honey of light varieties, for example, lime. Dark varieties crystallize quickly and bees do not have the ability to use it. Also it is worth checking nectar on the pad and poisons. Honey containing pap can cause toxicosis and indigestion disorders.
Another common cause and error of beekeepers. Due to insufficient ventilation, nests get damp. Wet mats and frames will cool the nest. After that, the bees begin to consume more honey to keep warm. As a result, insects wear out, their intestines overflow with feces, fermentation begins in honey, and perga grows moldy. All conditions together lead to the death of the family.
Weakness of the family and lack of individuals
If the family is weak, then it has no chance of survival. Only strong bee families should go to winter, because they are more resistant to survival conditions. So, the bees will be able to maintain the optimum temperature with the same load on one individual. In addition, it is very important to take care of juveniles.
When the bees remain for the winter that they participated in raising the young, building honeycombs, etc., then there is no chance of surviving the winter without loss. In the spring of insects will not bring a new offspring, even if they survive. Therefore, in the fall there should be at least 3 frames with brood. As long as it grows, old bees will do all the work, such as late bribes, processing syrup.
What else should a beekeeper take care of? The very first thing initially sick family should not go in the winter, because it can overtake a variety of diseases. The most popular is Varroatosis. Even if the stuckness is some one percent - this is a reason to worry. The infected percentage of bees begins to behave aggressively, excitedly, thereby catching the whole club. As a result, insects without rest (which is necessary in winter) wear out, over-consume food and die.
If you misuse antibiotics and do not do well, this is another reason for the death of insects. Often, such negligence causes a violation of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract, thereby reducing the immunity of bees.
- Insecurity against mice. These parasites find the slightest slits to get into a warm cozy room. Mice start there to crap, to gnaw everything, including bees. Insects cannot fight back because they are tied to the club. All that they can do is make noise and worry, and as a result, the bees do not live to see the spring.
- Netihy wintery. If there is a highway or satellite base near the apiary, then this is a concern for insects, as it is harder for them to survive the winter.
- Bad weather. Of course, not everything depends on the beekeeper. Sudden temperature fluctuations can confuse insects. So, having felt the warming of the uterus, they will start laying eggs, and the bees will feed the brood. And then the cold comes sharply and the worn out individuals die together with the unprepared brood.
How to solve a problem?
Of course, the solution to the problem is to properly prepare for the winter. On average, for the winter you need to prepare 25 kg of honey for one hive. Better to overdo it than not to report. In the center should be placed a frame filled with nectar by two thirds. Feed must be proven, good quality.
You should also carry out sanitary treatment of nests, warn Varroatosis, Akarapidoz and other ailments, carry out the prevention of Nosema. Check each hive for the smallest holes that may cause rodents to enter the hive. It is worth paying attention to ventilation, because even well insulated nest can not escape the death of bees. Well and, in general, the zimovnik matters, the quieter it will be, the better.
Responsible need to approach the folding of families, and then to the proper collection of the nest for each family individually. Throughout the winter, the beekeeper must control his apiary. If a nest lives restlessly, then you need to find and eliminate the cause. When the feed ends, you need to additionally feed the bees.
As a result, the future honey collection is completely dependent on the owner. How responsibly he will approach the issue of wintering his insects, the fewer dead individuals will be in the spring.